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    Cross-cousin Relation Between Buddha and Devadatta.
     
    [ 作者: Mitra, Kalipada.   来自:期刊原文   已阅:3446   时间:2006-12-21   录入:douyuebo

     

    ·期刊原文


    Cross-cousin Relation Between Buddha and Devadatta.

    Mitra, Kalipada.

    pp.125--128

     

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               p.125

           CROSS-COUSIN   RELATION   BETWEEN  BUDDHA AND DEVADATTA.
                              BY KALIPADA MITRA.

                THE attribution  of rivalry  between  Buddha  and
            Devadatta  to the  cross-cousin  system  shown  in an
            article entitled 'Buddha and Devadatta'  (ante., vol.
            LII, p. 267), written by Mr.  A. M.  Hocart is indeed
            very  attractive.  I do  not  feel  competent  at the
            moment to say anything for or against the theory, but
            desire  to offer a few observations  in regard to the
            article.

                Mr.  Hocart writes (ante., vol.  LII, App.  A, p.
            271): " I should like to draw the reader's  attention
            to  Vinaya,  vol.   II,  p.   188,  where   Devadatta
            approaches  Buddha  most respectfully  and offers  to
            relieve  his age of the burden  of administering  the
            Order.  The Buddha  replies  with abuse, calling  him
            'corpse, lick-spittle  ' (Chavassa, Khelakapassa).(1)
            This seems scarcely in keeping with the character  of
            the Buddha, but it is with that of a cross-cousin.(2)

                But in Cullavagga (V. 8.2), we read that when the
            Buddha  heard that Pindola  Bhara dvaja had shown his
            magic power by flying  through  the air thrice  round
            Rajagaha  with the sandal-bowl, which was set high on
            a  pole  by  a  Rajagaha   setthi  (atha  kho  ayasma
            Pindolabhara  dvajo vehasam  abbhuggantva  tam pattam
            gahetva   tikkhattum   Rajagaham   anupariyasi) ,  he
            reprimanded  the thera for having displayed his iddhi
            (magic  power) for so trifling  an object as a sandal
            bowl.  There  he uses the word chavassa, and a simile
            not at all dignified  and  becoming  (Katham  hi nama
            tvam Bharadvaja chavassa darupattassa  karana gihi nam
            uttarimanussadhammam   iddhipatihariyam  dassessasi,
            seyyathapi Bharadvaja matugamo 11 But cf. Grant Duff,
            Hisxory of the Mahrattas (ed. 1921), I,pp. 11n, 21n.


            -------------------------
            1  The actual  words used in the Cullavagga, however,
               are chavassa khelapakassa.
            2  Italics mine.


                               p.126

                chavassa  masakarupassa  karana  kopinam  dasseti
            evam eva kho taya  Bharadvaja  chavassa  darupattassa
            karana gihinam uttarimanussa dhammam iddhipatihariyam
            dassitam).  The explanation, therefore, that Buddha's
            use  of unbecoming  language  towards  Devadatta  was
            scarcely in keeping with his character, but with that
            of a cross-cousin, becomes, to  my mind, considerably
            weakened, for that  was   not the  only  occasion  on
            which he used language unworthy of his character.  In
            fact  the  word  chava   seems   to  have  been  used
            frequently, e.g., in Majjhima  Nikaya  (Upalisattam,
            M.N.,I, 371  ff.): chavo  manadando....kimhi  soshati
            eko-ciavo purhso, eka chava Nalanda.

                Then again we get a passage, " Devadatts  is hurt
            and one day when  Buddha  is walking  up and down  on
            Grdhrakuta, hill throws a stone at him (op.  cit., p.
            193)."

                Mr.  Hocart  says that "it is remarkable  that in
            Fiji this kind of legend is often told to account for
            the cross-cousinship;"  and he tells a legend  of the
            island of Nayan and of Vanuavatu  bearing likeness to
            the Grdhrakuta  legend.  In South Africa  the uterine
            nephew for stealing the offering " gets pelted by the
            others " (ante, vol. LII, p.  268), and " the pelting
            of  the  uterine   nephew  is  part  of  a  religious
            ceremonial  " (ante, vol.  LII, p.  271).  It appears
            that all this was "a playful antagonism  "(ante, vol.
            LII, p.  269), and not intended to bring about death.
            Devadatta  however  hurled down a rock, intending  to
            kill  the  Buddha  (atha  kho Devadatto  Gijjhakutam
            pabbatam  abhiruhitva  mahantam silam pavijjhi  imaya
            samanam Gotamam jivita voropessamiti)(3). He is said to
            have  hurled  the immense  stone  " by the help  of a
            machine."(4) "Hiuen  Tsang  saw the stone  which  was
            fourteen  or fifteen  feet high."(5) Of course it may
            be  that  " the  playful  antagonism  " (such  as  is
            preserved in pelting as " a religious ceremonial  "),
            expressive of the liberty of the cross-cousin system,
            originally     existed,    but    was    subsequently
            mis-represented  as a deadly feud, when the memory of
            the custom was lost, the idea of fighting having been
            somehow or other regarded as essential, as Mr. Hocart
            explains.

                I  shall  notice  only  another  passage  in  the
            article: " If the  hostility  of Devadatta  is merely
            the  record  of ordinary  hatred, it is difficult  to
            understand  why  Devadatta  possesses  the  power  of
            flying  through  the air  and of performing  miracles
            (ante, vol. LII, p. 269)."(6)

                Whatever  power Devadatta  possessed  of " flying
            through the air and performing  miracles" he seems to
            have lost it, and that for ever, after his miraculous
            appearance before Ajasat; for we learn that Devadstta
            " at this time lost the power of dhyana."(7) I do not
            find  anywhere  in the subsequent  part of the Manual
            that Devadatta ever recovered his magic power.

                The possession of the power of flying through the
            air by Devadatta  does not present any difficulty  to
            me.  This power  was entirely  due to the Buddha, and
            vanished  from him even at the very thought of revolt
            against the Great Teacher.  Let me pursue this view a
            little  further.  It is related  in Cullavagga  (VII.
            1.4)  that  when  he  was  ordained   by  the  Buddha
            (pabbajja) along  with Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Bhagu and
            Kimbila--the    Sakyas,   Devadatta   attained   only
            pothujjanikam   iddhim  (the  lower  grade  of  Magic
            Power).  He exhibited  his power by assuming the form
            of a child (or a.  Brahmin?), wearing  a girdle  of
            snakes and suddenly  appear  ing in Ajatasattu's  lap
            (atha   kho   Devadalto   sakavannam   patisamharitva
            kumarakavannam      abhinimminitva     ahimekhalikaya
            Ajatasattussa Kumarassa ucchange paturahosi). But as
            soon as the evil thought  of administering  the Order
            possessed him, his Magic Power diminished


            ---------------------------
            3  C.V.,  VII.   3.9.          4  (Spence  Hardy,  Manual  of
               Buddhism (1860), p. 320.
            5  Quoted from the article, p. 271.
            6  Mr.  Hocart refers to Hardy's  Manual of Buddhism,
               p,. 326.  This page corresponds to p.  315, of the
               edition  (1860) I  am  consulting.  Apparently  he
               refers to the passage: " By the power of dhyana he
               became a rishi, so that he could pass through  the
               air and assume any form." All my referances are to
               be found in the edition of the Manual published in
               1860.
            7  Hardy's Manual, p. 316.


                               p.127

                (saha  cittuppada  'va  Devadatto  tassa  iddhiya
            parihayi).  His magic power, small  as it was, became
            smaller.  Even before  this event he does not seem to
            be much  in request;  and feels  the  anguish  of it.
            "When  the Teacher  and the monks went into residence
            at Kosambi, great numbers  of people flocked  thither
            and  said,  "  Where  is  the  Teacher?  Where  is
            Sariputta? Moggallana,? Kassapa? Bhaddiya? Anuruddha?
            Ananda? Bhagu? Kimbila?" But nobody  said, " where is
            Devadatta? " Thereupon  Devadatta  said to himself, "
            Iretired  from the world  with these  monks;  I, like
            them, belong to the warrior caste;  but unlike them I
            am the object of nobody's solicitude."(8) And then with
            the help of Ajatasattu he tried to kill Buddha.  When
            all his attempts  failed, he went  to the Buddha, and
            with  a  view  to  cause   a  schism   in  the  Order
            (Samghabhedam) made (C. V., VII, 3.  14) a request of
            five  things, which  the Buddha  flatly  refused.  He
            persuaded 500 monks to follow him to Gayasisa. Then "
            Sariputta and Moggallana, convinced them of the error
            of their  ways by preaching  and performing  miracles
            before  them, and  returned  with  them  through  the
            air."(9) The Magic Power, therefore, of Devadatta was
            very meagre by comparison  with that of Sariputta and
            Moggallana.  It has already been related that this he
            attained after his ordination  by the Buddha, and was
            there  fore in a way owing  to him, and even that was
            only pothujjanika. Other disciples of the Buddha such
            as  Ayasma  Sagata  (M.V.,  V,  1.  5-8)  and  Ayasma
            Pilindavaccha    (M.V.,    V1,   15.    8-9)   showed
            Uttarimanussadhammam    iddhipatihariyam.    On   the
            occasion  of the exhibition  of the Great Miracle  by
            the Buddha, even his lay disciples, such  as Grhapati
            Luhasudatto,  Kalo  Rajabhrata;   Rambhaka   Aramika,
            Riddhilamata   Upasika,  and  Bhikshuni  Utpalavarna,
            offered   to   exhibit   their   riddhi   (apparently
            Sarvacravakasadharana).(10) Gharani, Sulu-anepidu and
            others  offered  to show astounding  miracles, before
            which   Devadatta's   miracles   pale.(11)  Even  the
            titthiyas  or heretics, much hated  by the Buddhists,
            seem  to  have  exercised  iddhi.  In the  Cullavagga
            (V.8.1) and  the  Divyavadana  (p.  143, et sep.) the
            heretic leaders Purano Kassapa, Makkhali  Gosala, and
            others  claimed  to be arahats  endowed  with Magical
            Power  (aham,  araha  c'eva  iddhima  ca;  vayam  sma
            riddhimanto....yady  ekam  cramano  Gautamo'  nuttare
            manushyadharme riddhipratiharyam vidarcayishyati vayam
            dve)(12).  Though no where in the Buddhist  boobs are
            the  latter   made  to  show  their  iddhi,  abundant
            references  to  this  are  found  elsewhere.  In  the
            Bhagavati  Sutra, a Jaina  book, it is  related  that
            Makkhali  Gosala, destroyed  by his Magic  Power  two
            disciples of Mahavira (Nigantha Nataputta), and tried
            to kill  Mahavira  himself, but  was  for  his  pains
            killed by the Magic Power of the latter, The heretics
            undoubtedly were " utterly wicked ";  still they seem
            to have exercised Magic Power. I therefore do not see
            anything very peculiar in the attribution  of magical
            power to Devadatta.

                References  to the cross-cousin  system are to be
            found   in  the  Brahmana   and   Sutra   literature.
            Westermarck in his History of Human Marriage (p. 304)
            says, " yet in the older literature marriage with the
            daughters  of the mother's  brother  and sons  of the
            father's sister is permitted " and quotes passages in
            support   of  this  in  the  footnote.   Weber:  (Die
            Kastenver-  haltnisse  in dem Brahman  und Sutra'  in
            Indische Studien, vol.  X, pp.  75 et sep.  Pradyumna
            married the daughter  of Rukmi, his mother Rulrmini's
            brother.(13) Arjuna married his mother's


            -----------------------------
            8  Burlingame,  Buddhaghosa's  Dhammapada  Commentary
               (Proc. of the American Academy: 45--20), p. 504.
            9  Ibid., p. 505. Also C.V., VII, 4. 3.
            10 Cowell and Nail, DivydvadanadBn,a, pp. 160, 161.
            l1  Hardy's Manual, p. 297.
            12  See also Sarabhamigo Jataka, (483).
            13    Srimabdbhagavata,  Skandha,  X,  sl.   22,  23,
               Uttaravdha, 61.
                     Vrtah svayamvare sakshadanango' angayutastaya,
                     rajnoh sametan nirrjitya jaharaikaratha yudhi
                    ││ 22 ││
                     yadyapy anusmaran vairam Rukmi Krshnavamanitah.
                     byatarat  bhagineyaya sutam kurvan svasuh priyam
                    ││ 23 ││


                               p.128

                brother's  daughter, Subhadra (Krshna's  sister).
            We need not examine  here whether  Krshna  and Arjuna
            were Aryans or Non-Aryans, to determine  whether  the
            custom  was Aryan or Non-Aryan.  Anyhow it shows that
            the  custom  prevailed  in  Northern  India.   Arjuna
            married  her in the Rakshasa  form by abducting  her,
            which  involved  him in a fight with the Yadavas, his
            cross-cousin relations. This may point to the rivalry
            adverted  to by  Mr.  Hocart, but  then  it militates
            against  the great friendship  which existed  between
            Krshn a and the Pandavas.  King Avimaraka  in Bhasa's
            drama Avimaraka  marries Kurangi, the daughter of his
            mother's  brother, Kuntibhoja.  Madhavacarya  in  his
            commentary  on  Parasara  Samhita  says  that  though
            marriage  with  a  mother's  brother's   daughter  is
            against  the practice  of wise men in Northern  India
            (Udicyacishta  garhilam) yet being a good practice in
            the Dekhan, this system  is not indecorous  (avinita)
            in   Northern   India.    The   Crutis   support   it
            (matulasutavivahasyanugrahakah  Crutyadayah), and he
            quotes   Rg   Veda   (7.    4.   3.   22.   6--trptam
            jahurmatulasyeva   yosha,   etc.) ,  as   being   the
            mantravarna used in that marriage. References to this
            marriage  are  also  contained  in Kumarila  Bhatta's
            Tantravartika  (pp.  127--129, Benares  edition) and
            Viramitrodaya-Samskara-prakaca  (pp.  139--141,  172,
            203)(14) But as I have not sufficiently  investigated
            this  line  of  evidence, I am unable  to say  if  it
            strengthens  Mr.   Hocart's  theory  of  cross-cousin
            rivalry.  Mysterious  are the ways in which the seeds
            and  pollen  of a myth  or  custom  are  carried  and
            propagated  and Mr.  Hocart's  theory demands serious
            investigation.

     

     

     

     

     

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