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    Mahaparinibbana-sutta and Cullavagga
     
    [ 作者: Finot, Louis   来自:期刊原文   已阅:3301   时间:2007-1-2   录入:douyuebo


    ·期刊原文
    Mahaparinibbana-sutta and Cullavagga

    Finot, Louis
    The Indian Historical Qutlrterly
    8:2
    1932.06


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                               p.241

                 Mahaparinibbana-sutta and Cullavagga

                The Cullavagga (henceforth abbreviated as Cv.) of
            the Vinaya-  pitaka  consists  of two parts differing
            vastly  in length, matter  and  form: the first  part
            (chaps.   I-X)   being   a   code   of   disciplinary
            regulations, and the second (chaps. XI-XII) a history
            of  the  two  councils, one  of  which  assembled  at
            Rajagaha  directly  after the Parinibbana  of Buddha,
            and the other at Vesali, a century later. No link, no
            transition  connects  the two parts  together.  While
            chap.  X (leaving  aside the usual mnemonic  summary)
            closes  with a rule concerning  the bath of the nuns,
            chap.  XI opens  abruptly  with the words: "Then  the
            venerable Maha-Kassapa  said to the Bhikkhus: 'Once I
            was  travelling   along   the  road   from   Pava  to
            Kusinara....''    Where,   when,   and   under   what
            circumstances  was this discourse  held, who were the
            bhikkhus thus addressed, nobody knows. The record has
            no historical  introduction  (nidana), thus lacking a
            regular  feature  of the  Buddhist  canonical  texts;
            also, if its first word "then" (atha) implies that it
            is the sequel  of something  else, we have just seen
            that it could not be the sequel of chap.  X. Here are
            two anomalies bound to strike the reader, and we must
            acknowledge  that, as they  now  stand  preserved  in
            chaps. XI-XII, these Acta Conciliorum appear as a be-
            headed  trunk, the  head  of which  has  to be sought
            elsewhere.


                               p.242

                It  has  been   observed   long  ago  by  several
            scholars(1) that  the  events  contained  in  Cv.  XI
            follow chronologically those which form the subject-
            matter   of  the  Mahaparinibbana-sutta   (henceforth
            abbreviated  as  MPS.),  a  remark  from  which  none
            apparently  seems  to have  drawn  its  most  natural
            conclusion,  viz., that  MPS.  and  Cv.  XI-XII  were
            originally  parts  of  a whole.  Such  an inference,
            reasonable in itself, is further strengthened  by the
            fact  that, besides  the  unbroken  sequence  of the
            events  which they relate, the two sections  share  a
            peculiar  character  Suggestive  of a common  origin,
            that is their  historical, annalistic  garb.  Indeed,
            MPS.  looks in the Sutta-pitaka  quite as strange and
            heterogeneous as Cv.  XI-XII in the Vinaya-pitaka,
            whilst if removed from their respective  surroundings
            and  joined   together,  the  two  give  a  perfectly
            coherent  "Chronicle"  of the  last  journey  of  the
            Buddha, of his death, his obsequies, and of the first
            two councils.

                The existence  of such a work being provisionally
            admitted, it ensues  that  the present  place  in the
            Canon of those historical  records must be the result
            of  some  later  interference.  As  to  their  former
            setting, we are driven  to mere conjectures;  yet the
            sacred  books  of other  schools  may  offer  us some
            helpful  analogies: for instance, the  Vinaya  of the
            Mula-Sarvastivadins  contains, under  the title  of
            Samyukta-vastu  (Nanjio, No.  1121), an  account  of
            both Parinirvana  and Councils, which answers exactly
            to  the  kind  of  "Chronicle"  presupposed   by  our
            hypothesis.  Why should not the Theravadins  have had
            among their sacred books an his-  torical  record  of
            the same description?

                What  was  then  the motive  which  induced  the
            Diaskeuasts   to   dismember   that   work?  Many
            explanations  to such a step might  be found.  Let us
            proffer here one which seems plausible enough.  Since
            it extended  over a long time after the death  of the
            Tathagata,  the  subject-matter  of  the  "Chronicle"
            could  not  be  styled as the  Word  of  the  Buddha
            (Buddhavacanam);it was necessarily extra-canonical.
            Still, it preserved  utterances  of the Master  which
            were not only most  beautiful  and pathetic, but highly
            important  for the doctrine, and which the com-

            ----------------------
            1  E.g.   Oldenberg, Vinaya, I, xxv1: "The  tradition
               of the councils  takes up the thread  of the story
               where the accounts of the life and work of Buddha,
               given in the Suttapitaka, end". Id., Buddhistische
               Studien, in ZDMG., xxii, 615  "Die  Erzahlung  des
               Cullavagga,  die  sich  genau  an  die  des  MPS.,
               anschliesst..."


                               p.243

            pilers  of the Canon  ould  have  been loath  to
            discard. It was therefore perfectly natural that they
            should  wish  to introduce  them into  the Basket  of
            Discourses, a thing easily achieved  by setting apart
            the section relative to Parinibbana  and inserting it
            into  the  Sutta-pitaka.  As  to  the  remnant  being
            chiefly  concerned  with  disciplinary  questions, it
            occurred  to  them  that  it  might  he  conveniently
            annexed to the Vinaya-pitaka as a kind of Appendix or
            Parisista.

                Here   we  are  confronted   with  the  so-called
            discrepancy, which Oldenberg thought that he detected
            between MPS.  and Cv.  XI, with the consequence that,
            in hiS opinion, the First  Council, so fully narrated
            in the latter, was totally ignored by the former.

                The alleged contradiction  is supposed  to lie in
            the way in which the Subhadda incident is related by
            both.   In   MPS.,  Maha-Kassapa,  on   hearing   the
            subversive prattle of that bad monk, confines himself
            to several  banal remarks  on Impermanence;  while in
            Cv.   XI,  he  reacts  earnestly  by  proposing   the
            convocation   of  a  council  to  crush  the  growing
            heretical  tendencies.  This would lead the reader to
            infer that the two accounts  could not have proceeded
            from the same hand.

                Such a conclusion  would however  be founded on a
            misapprehension of the facts: the two accounts do not
            stand  on the same plane.  In MPS., Maha-Kassapa  and
            his  disciples, while  on  their  way  from  Pava  to
            Kusinara, hear the tidings of the Master's  decease,
            whereupon Subhadda hails cynically the future freedom
            of  the  monks.  At  that  moment, Maha-Kassapa  says
            nothing about an eventual council: very properly too,
            his only companions, his pupils, not having the least
            qualification  to consider such an important  scheme,
            much less to decide upon it. On the contrary, the Cv.
            introduces   Maha-Kassapa   relating   the   Subhadda
            incident  in presence  of the general Samgha, headed
            by the great theras Ananda, Anuruddha, etc.  Speaking
            before  the  leading  authorities   of  the  Buddhist
            Church, fully  competent  to  take  any  neces-  sary
            measure  for the maintenance  of the Dhammavinaya, he
            seizes quite naturally  the proffered opportunity  to
            suggest the calling of a general meeting. Personally,
            we cannot detect in that the shadow of a discrepancy.

                This  fictitious  difficulty  being  removed,  it
            seems  that  nothing  really  withstands  the working
            hypothesis of a later redistribution of the texts


                               p.244

            as  stated  above.  We  even  thus get rid of several
            perplexing singularities, such as, for example, those
            connected  with  the  question  of lesser  and  minor
            precepts.

                According  to the  tradition  of the Theravadins,
            the First Council  begins with the expounding  of the
            Vinaya  by  Upali  and  its  rehearsal  by the  whole
            Assembly.  One of the rules so recited (Pacittiya,72)
            runs as follows:

                "Whatsoever  Bhikkhu,  when  the  Patimokkhs is
                being recited,  shall  speak  thus: 'What comes
                of these lesser  and minor  precepts being here
                recited,save only that they tenet to misgiving,
                and worry, and perplexity?', there is Pacittiya
                in thus throwing contempt on the precepts."

                The rule  is admitted  without  any reservation,
            Ananda silently assenting.  But when the said Ananda,
            having  in his turn  taken  the chair  to settle  the
            question  of the wording  of the Suttas, proceeds  to
            recite   the  Mahaparinibbana-sutta,  he  quotes  the
            following words of the Buddha (MPS., VI, 3.):

                   "When  I am  gone, Ananda, let  the  Order, if
                   it  should  so  wish, abolish  all the  lesser
                   and  minor precepts."

                Now this amounts  to no less  than  allowing  the
            removal  of those very regulations which, as it had
            been recalled, it was strictly. forbidden even to
            criticise. Nor is it all  The rehearsal of the Dhamma
            being completed, Ananda goes on and says:

                   "The  Blessed  One, Sirs, at the time  of  his
                   passing  away, spake  thus  to me: 'When  I am
                   gone, Ananda, let the Samgha, if it  should so
                   wish, abolish all the lesser and minor precep-
                   ts",

                thus seeming to impart to the Samgha, as a fresh
            piece  of news, an information  which  he had already
            given them before.  In its present  state the text is
            manifestly incoherent: our suggestion that What is now
            known to us as the MPS. on one hand, and the Cv.
            XI-XII  on the  other, primitively united in one work,
            was later on arbitrarily  divided and awkwardly  thrown
            into the Pitakas without hardly any attempt  at making
            it fit with  its new setting, would account for such
            inconsistencies in the result.


                               p.245

                A closer examination  of the text even brought us
            to the  conclusion  that  the lost  or at least  the
            dismembered  work must have been  a good  deal  older
            than  the recension  of the Canon  into which  it was
            inserted.  Any-  how what has come  over to us in its
            present  mnutilated  form still  bears  witness  to a
            previous  state  of the  Dhamma  as well  as of  the
            language. The episode of Channa's punishment and that
            of Yasa's quarrel with the bhikkhus  of Vesali  will
            serve to illustrate our point.

                Before passing away, the Buddha ordered that the
            brahmadanda  penalty  be inflicted  upon the bhikkhu
            Channa.  Ananda who, curiously  enough, ignores  what
            the brahmadanda  is, asks for a definition, which  is
            given  to him.  As  this  penalty  is  not  mentioned
            anywhere, except in the two parallel  passages of the
            MPS., VI, 4, and  Cv.  XI, 1, 12-15, one  can  hardly
            escape  from coming  to the conclusion  that the rule
            concerning  the  brahmadanda  belonged  to an  older
            stage of the Buddhist Vinaya.

                The twelfth  and last  chapter  of the Cullavagga
            has also given rise to manifold  discussions.  It is,
            however,   practically   certain   that   the   sharp
            dissension   which   arose,  a  century   after   the
            Parinibbana, between Western  and Eastern  monks, who
            advocated   respectively   a  more   or  less   rigid
            discipline, takes  us  back  to  a  period  when  the
            monastic  rule were not yet so strictly defined as in
            the existing Vinaya-pitaka.

                The case opens with a dispute  between  the thera
            Yasa and the bhikkhus  of Vesali about the latter's
            practice of  accepting gold and  silver  from  lay
            disciples.  Such  a contest  is hardly  conceivable
            in face  of the rule Nissaggiya  XVIII: "Whatsoever
            bhikkhu shall receive gold  or  silver......that  is
            a  Pacittiya  offence involving gotgriyutr." the
            bhikkhus  indulging  in that lax habit deem themselves
            justified, not only in persisting in
            it, but  even  in censuring  their  censor.  Yasa  is
            called  upon to defend  his point of view before  the
            laymen, a thing which he does by quoting  three  texts:
            (a) a sutta  of a  general  character, upon  the  four
            upakkilesa, A., II, 53;  (b) a sutta-not  to be found
            in  the  Sutta-pitaka--in   which   the   Buddha, speaking
            to Maniculaka, confirms the interdiction of receiving
            either   gold  or  silver;   (c)  finally,  the  only
            pertinent and decisive text, viz., Sutta-vibhanga on
            Nissaggiya XVIII; yet, while the first two are quoted
            in extenso, the last one is merely referred to, which
            makes it look like a posterior addition.


                               p.246

                The contested  point  on the acceptation  of gold
            and silver is but one of the ten indulgences  claimed
            by the monks  of Vesali  and  which were condemned  by
            the Council held in order to consider their case.It has
            been  shown(2) that  the list  of the Ten Points  was
            primitively drawn up in a Prakrit no longer perfectly
            understood at the time of the redaction of the Second
            Council, the bulk  of which  is still  preserved  in
            Cullavagga  XII, and enlarged  with  some  additions,
            such   as  the  minutes   of  the  session,  composed
            evidently  after  the same  pattern  as those  of the
            First Council.

                In short, the several data gathered above entitle
            us to suppose  that  the account  of the councils  of
            Rajagaha   and  Vesali once formed the latter part of
            a  Iarger historical  work, which, at the  time  of the
            compulation of the Tripitaka,  was  severed   into  two
            sections,  the  former  being  converted   into  the
            Maha-parinibbana-sutta  and  the latter  annexed  as
            capitula extravagantia  to the tenth Khandhaka of the
            Cullavagga.

                                                    LOUIS FINOT
            ----------------------
            2  Sylvain   Levi,  Observations   sur   une   langue
               prrcanonique du bouddhisme.
            (JA., Nov.-Dec. 1912, p.508).

     

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