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    《古代印度观音信仰的演变及其向中国的传播》中英文摘要
     
    [ 作者: 李利安   来自:本站   已阅:5370   时间:2007-1-4   录入:lianlee

     

    李利安博士论文

    《古代印度观音信仰的演变及其向中国的传播》

      英     

     

        作为一种流传极广的宗教文化现象,观音信仰对中国和东方许多国家的历史和文化都产生了巨大的影响,直到今天依然在中国社会的现实生活中占有十分显著的地位。遗憾的是,这种非常重要的宗教文化现象始终未得到中国学术界的充分重视,不但至今没有一种系统深入的观音信仰研究著作,已有的论文亦大多流于微薄与肤浅,特别是关于观音信仰的源流问题,在学术界一直处于模糊不清的状态,一种具有两千年历史的宗教文化现象竟然一直处于没有完整“历史”的状态,而这对于全面和准确地认识观音信仰形成了根本性的制约。可以这么说,不摸清一种事物的源流,就根本无法获得关于此事物准确而深刻的认识,特别是对于延续性和继承性很强的宗教文化现象来说,就更是这样。所以,观音信仰源流的模糊性必然决定了现有观音信仰研究水平在总体上的零散性和幼稚性。而观音信仰的历史源流不但跨越了各种截然不同的历史时代,而且也是在跨地域、跨民族的传播过程中维系和贯通的,因此,观音信仰的历史源流不但增加了更多曲折复杂的内容,蕴涵着宗教起源、发展、传播、演变等丰富的实践问题和理论问题,而且又不可避免地涉及到人类文化交流、文明交往等更为普遍、更为有趣的理论问题。可见,观音信仰从印度到中国的历史源流问题已经远远超越了单纯性历史线索的层次,而成为一个既具有丰富内涵、又具有广博外延的理论问题,解决好这个问题,既可成为观音信仰研究领域之突破,为其他各种类型的观音信仰研究提供一个坚实的基础,也可以为人类文化传播与交流的研究提供具体的例证和有益的借鉴。

    本文正是紧紧抓住观音信仰的源流问题展开论述,试图揭示观音信仰从印度到中国的整个流传演变进程,并在此基础上对传入中国并实现了中国化观音信仰进行结构分析和基本特性的把握。

    为了达到这个目标,本文以唯物史观为指导,主要采用历史学和宗教学的研究方法,首先对现有各种与观音相关的历史资料进行全面的清理,在占有大量原始资料的基础上,采用史实考证与理论分析相互结合的原则,追溯观音信仰在印度的源头,揭示其不断扩充、演进、融合与变革的历史轨迹,尤其是对观音信仰向中国传播的历程进行全面而系统的梳理,把古代印度的观音信仰作为一种外来文化,放在不断演变的中国社会历史与中国文化的具体环境下进行考察,从而既阐述古代印度观音信仰向中国传播的历史进程,也展示其在向中国传播过程中与中国社会及中国文化之间的关系。最后再对古代印度观音信仰的中国化及其基本特征进行横向的理论分析。

    经过如上研究,本文认为:1、古代印度的观音信仰起源于古代印度大陆南端的海上救难信仰;2、西方净土信仰经过一段发展之后将救难型观音信仰吸收进净土信仰体系,出现了净土往生型观音信仰,从而扩充了最初阶段的观音信仰;3、般若思想经过初期发展之后逐渐将观音融进自己的体系,最终形成般若解脱型观音信仰,从而进一步扩充了观音信仰的内涵;4、从杂密出现到纯密形成,观音又在密教的体系中占据非常重要的位置,从而形成密教型观音信仰,这是在继承原有观音信仰的基础上所出现的一次重大变革;5、古代印度社会中流行的观音信仰呈现出生活化、世俗化、多样化、变异化的特征,形成观音信仰的实践形态,并与观音信仰的经典形态相互影响,共同促进古代印度观音信仰的发展和传播;6、观音名称在中国的演变经历了三个主要历史阶段,其中每个阶段的名称都与各自历史时代对观音的理解有关,观音简称的出现不是因为唐初的名讳制度;7、观音信仰最早于魏晋时期传入中国,最初传入的观音信仰是净土往生型和现世救难型以及尚处于萌芽状态的般若解脱型观音信仰,而得到中国人立即接受的是救难型观音信仰;8、救难型观音信仰在中国所获得的强烈共鸣不是因为其与中国文化的相似性,而是因为其与中国文化之间的巨大的差异性,所以,相对与中国文化来讲,早期输入中国的观音信仰不是依附型,而是填补型,这是古代印度观音信仰向中国传播过程中“相异而受”现象的典型;9、东晋南北朝时期古代印度观音信仰向中国全面输入,主要有以下系列:救难系、净土系、华严系、般若系、受记系、杂密系和菩萨行系;10、东晋南北朝时期得到中国人最广泛选择的还是救难型观音信仰,净土型虽有部分人倡导,但并未得到广泛推广,接受般若类和杂密类观音信仰者更少,所以当时的观音信仰处在一种不平衡的发展状态;11、净土往生型观音信仰在数百年间无法获得共鸣,其原因在于中国社会与中国文化的环境,这成为印度观音信仰向中国传播过程中“相异而斥”现象的典型,而般若型观音信仰在唐以前的落寞则是“相似亦轻”现象的典型;12、隋唐时代在救难观音信仰进一步流行的同时,净土型、般若型和密教型观音信仰终于得到中国人的选择和接受,观音信仰在中国真正达到普及的程度,这既是印度佛教在中国传播和不断扩大影响的结果,也是隋唐时期中国社会稳定繁荣、思想开放活跃、文化进步的结果;13、古代印度观音信仰的中国化在不同的文化领域有不同的体现,在正统佛教体系内的中国化表现在观音身世、显化、灵感、道场等方面,在民间文化领域则表现为观音的神格与伦理的中国化。其中都受到中国传统儒、道等思想的深刻影响;14、中国化的观音信仰可以划为观音宗教文化和观音世俗文化两层结构,观音宗教文化作为观音文化的基础,又可划分为内在形态和外在形态两层结构,其中内在形态由义理观悟、福德积累、功夫修炼等三种法门构成,外在形态则由称名救难、净土往生、般若解脱、密仪持咒、行善积福、解疑释惑等六种形态构成;15、中国化观音信仰具有普及性、渗透性、融摄性、简易性、调和性、世俗性等六大特征,既涉及同中国社会政治、中国人日常生活、中国传统文化的关系,也涉及与佛教文化以及自身内部各信仰形态之间、自身理论与实践之间的多重复杂的关系。

    总之,本文对观音信仰从印度到中国的历史源流进行了全面系统的清理,对观音信仰在印度的起源、发展、变革进行了探索,对古代印度观音信仰向中国传播的几个阶段进行了梳理,对各阶段的主要特征及其与中国社会、中国文化的关系进行了分析,并在此纵向研究的基础上,对古代印度观音信仰的中国化及中国化观音信仰的基本结构和基本特征进行了剖析。本文所得出的上述十五种主要观点均为前人所未言,也是本项研究的核心内容,相信对深化观音信仰研究乃至整个佛教研究有促进作用,并为文化传播和文明交往研究提供有益的借鉴。

     

     

     

     

     

    The Evolution of Guanyin Belief

    in Ancient India and its Spread to China

    ( Abstract )

     

    As a wide-spreading religious phenomenon, Guanyin (Avalokitesvara) belief has had an important effect on the history and the culture of China and some other countries in the East. However it has not yet received its deservingly adequate attention from Chinese academic circle so far in that no systematic and deep research books could be available in addition to that the most of the papers concerned seem to be superficial, especially concerning the issue of the origin and development of Guanyin belief which is still under such an obscuring condition that the comprehensive and proper understanding of Guanyin Belief has been unavailable. Moreover, owing to its covering different historical periods as well as running through multi-nations and regions throughout its evolution, the Guanyin belief inevitably includes more complex factors such as the practical and theoretic issues about the religious origin, development, spread and transformation, as well as more interesting and more ubiquitous theoretic issues about the human cultural exchange and human civilization contacts. Therefore, the issue concerning historical evolution of Guanyin belief from India to China has become an important theoretical one which has both abundant connotation and extensive denotation instead of remaining a simply historical issue

    Focusing on the historical evolution of Guanyin belief, this dissertation tries to unveil the process of the transformation of Guanyin belief from India to China, and then to analyze the structure of sinozied Guanyin belief and to reveal its features as well. In order to reach this goal, this dissertation, using the method of historical and religious studies, directed by the materialistic historical viewpoint, firstly tries to clear out the related historical materials, and then on this basis trace back to the origin of Guanyin belief in India and unveil its historical track of expansion, development, amalgamation and transformation, and especially probe into the spread of Guanyin belief from India to China systematically and thoroughly.

    The basic viewpoints and achievements of this endeavor are as follows: 1. the Guanyin belief of ancient India originated from the mythology of sea savior which circulated in southern end of Indian continent; 2. pure land belief began to absorb savior Guanyin belief into its system after it developed into a new period, and this broadened the connotation of Guanyin belief; 3. Prajna school assimilated Guanyin, which made another new type of Guanyin belief , i.e. Prajna Guanyin belief, come into being; 4. Guanyin became to play an important role in Tantra Buddhism and therefore Tantra Guanyin belief shaped up, which was an important transformation based on the former inclusion of Guanyin belief; 5. The Guanyin belief spreading in ancient Indian society, which belonged to the form of practical Guanyin belief, had the characters of civil life, secularity, diversification, and transformation, which is much different from the form of theoretical Guanyin belief. The two forms of Guanyin belief had influences on each other and promoted the development of whole Guanyin belief; 6. Guanyin’s Chinese name evolved through three periods, each relating to the context of the time, and the shortened form of  “Guanyin” was not the result of the system of imperatorial name taboo in the early Tang Dynasty; 7. Guanyin belief of ancient India spread into China initially in Wei-Jin time in the forms of pure land Guanyin belief and parts of Prajna Guanyin belief and the savior Guanyin belief, but the one that Chinese people accepted immediately was the latter; 8.the acceptance of savior Guanyin belief by Chinese people was not because of its similarity with Chinese culture but its difference, so savior Guanyin belief was not an attachment but a filling-vacancy in Chinese culture; 9. During East Jin and South-North Dynasty, the primary types of Guanyin belief from ancient India could be divided into the following systems: the system of savior belief, pure land belief, Buddhavatamsaka-mahavaipulya, Prajna, vyakarana, and bodhi-sattva behavior; 10. The spread of Guanyin belief in East Jin and South-north Dynasty was lopsided, because the most extensively acceptant type of Guanyin belief was still Savior Guanyin belief, and all others could not be accepted by Chinese people in that time; 11. The response-less condition to the pure land Guanyin belief resulted from Chinese society and Chinese culture, which became the model of the historical phenomenon of exclusion resulted from the difference, but the response-less condition to the Prajna Guanyin belief became the model of the historical phenomenon of exclusion resulted from the similarity; 12. with the further spread of savior Guanyin belief in Sui and Tang Dynasty, the types of Pure Land Guanyin belief, Prajna Guanyin belief and Tantra Guanyin belief were finally chosen and accepted by Chinese people, and the spread of the whole Guanyin belief had verily reached to the level of universality, which was not only because of the propagation of Indian and Chinese Buddhists, but also because of the open, stable, flourishing society and especially the active state of ideology; 13. the history of the spread of Guanyin belief from ancient India to China embodies the basic features of the contacts of human civilizations advanced by Professor Peng Shuzhi in his book “On the Contacts of Civilizations”(Wen Ming Jiao Wang Lun), which are the features of practice, mutual-promotion, openness, diversification and migration; 14. the sinosization of the ancient Indian Guanyin Belief has varied ways of expression in different cultural fields, and in orthodox Chinese Buddhism field, it found expression in Guanyin’s pedigree, manifestation, inspiration and missionary rite, while in the folk cultural field, it gave expression to the sinosization of Guanyin’s divine character and the Guanyin’s ethics, which respectively was affected profoundly by Chinese Taoism and Confucianism; 15. the sinosized Guanyin belief is fallen into two parts. One is its religious culture, and the other is its mundane culture. The former is also composed of two layers, the inner layer is made up of three types of cultivation, which are wisdom, virtues, and religious efforts, while the outer layer is made up of six belief types, which are savior, pure land, Prajna, Tantra, fortune retribution, and divination. 16. the features of sinosized Guanyin belief, I think, are  shown in seven aspects: its popularization, permeability, comprehensiveness, facilitation, harmonization, adjustability, and its secularity, which are all related to Chinese social politics, Chinese daily life, Chinese traditional culture, the whole Buddhist culture, as well as its all types of believes, the relationship between its theories and practice.

     

     

    Lian Li (major: History and Culture of South Asia)

    Directed by: Shuzhi Peng

    Key words: ancient India,  Buddhism,  Guanyin belief,  evolution,  China

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