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    Original Buddhism and Amrta
     
    [ 作者: Rhys Davids, Caroline A.F.   来自:期刊原文   已阅:2950   时间:2007-1-5   录入:douyuebo
    49tjf49edf:Article:ArticleID


    ·期刊原文
    Original Buddhism and Amrta

    Rhys Davids, Caroline A.F.
    Melanges chinois et bouddhiques
    vol. 1938-1939
    Juillet 1939
    P.371-382


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     


                                    P.371


              In the words he uses for that More which he  wills
            life to bring him, man expresses this as what he may
            become, may come to be.  It is then for him a vision
            of highest  worth.  It is a New that  he is seeking.
            When it is a Less  that  he seeks, he will  word the
            More  as what he may come  to have.  Now this is the
            story  of Am.rta.  It is that  of a Becoming  in the
            New, reduced to a coming-to-have.
              Religions,  at various periods,  with varying fre-
            quency  and with  varying  fervour, have  made vocal
            man's yearning for a world which he need never leave
            just because he has to "die." In or of such a world,
            he feels  he is not only, and no longer  in, a More;
            he will have attained, that is, he will have become,
            the Most, Highest, Best.  And  by this  he means  he
            will  be  ever  Man-in-the-New, because  he  has  no
            longer about him, or of him anything that is, or can
            be, worn out, old, unfit, to be discarded.
              This  feature is not a monopoly of later scripture.
            Nowhere for me does it find utterance with such zest
            and eloquence as in the Vedic hymns. Does any of you
            know those lines to the sacred  juice Soma ўw divine
            milkpunch,  as  Bloomfield  with  quaint  scurrility
            calls it ўw in the IXth.  book of the Rigveda, where
            Soma is addressed  as Pavamaana, the Winnowing  One,
            or Purifying Motor?(I quote Griffith's translation.)
              O Pavamaana, place me in that deathless undecaying
              world
              wherein the light of heaven is set, and everlasting
              lustre shines!


                                    P.372


              Make me immortal in that realm...where is heaven's
              secret shrine,
              where  are those waters  young  and fresh!
              Make  me immortal  where  men move  even  as  they
              list,
              In inmost heaven's third sphere,where lucid worlds
              are full of light!
              Make  me immortal  in that realm of eager wish and
              strong  desire!
              Make me immortal in that realm where happiness and
              bliss,
              Joy  and felicity combine, and longing wishes  are
              fulfilled!

            Here is no mere realm  of added  conditions  of rest
            and peace  ўw heaven  of the old and weary;  here is
            the ever-surging  life  of eternal  adolescence, the
            winning, the ever  creating  the New ! With language
            fitted almost exclusively for the needs and concepts
            of life  in the  actual, life  in the More, we think
            and think rightly, of the Most as ineffable.  We can
            only  rightly  name  that  which  we  know.  As  the
            Buddhist  poem words  it, with a reticence  that  is
            characteristic, but in no way sceptical:

                  There is no measuring a man gone hence;
                  that whereby to word him, that for him is not;
                  in matters that to end are brought, the ways
                  to tell to end are brought, yea, everyone!(1)

              The  youthful courage of the Veda hymn is not so
            reticent, yet does this vision of fervent aspiration
            appeal to me as does no tombstone-vista  of rest and
            peace.
              There is perhaps only one thing in the lovely lines
            wherein  they  are for me defective, and that is the
            irrationality  of the prayer: "make me immortal!"(2)
            The man who is praying is immortal here and now. But
            he has about him the mortal. And he is praying for a
            becoming, wherein and whereby he may be rid for ever
            of  his  mortal  appanage,  his  mortal  instruments
            necessary  to him for life  in this  or that  world,
            i.e.  a body  and mind-ways  of using  body.  But in
            Vedic  India  man was held to be only  conditionally
            immortal. Survival of the dying of his last body was
            held to depend upon fit sacrifice, fit prayer
            ўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўw
              1  Sutta-Nipaata, ver. 1076.
              2  Maam am.rta.m k.r.dhi.


                                    P.373


            by son, by priest.  And the early Upani.sads, though
            they reveal a great religious advance, still contain
            such a prayer as

                  May I,O God,become bearer of the immortal !(1)

            A deeper  vision  would  have  prayed  for  a  man's
            becoming perfectly well. AArogya, not am.rta, should
            have  been  the word.  For the man  who is perfectly
            well, immortality  follows  as  result;  he  has  no
            further  need of instruments  that wear out, needful
            though  these  be for his  long  apprenticeship, his
            long wayfaring in the worlds.
              In leaving our Pavamaana prayer I would remind you
            that it is not typical  of Vedic aspiration.  I have
            found  less than a dozen contexts  in them on am.rta
            and am.rtattva.  Nor are there a greater  number  in
            the Braahm.nas.  But in the relatively short compass
            of the  13 Upani.sads  reckoned  earliest, the words
            immortal, immortality occur about 100 times. Only in
            the short Maa.n.duukya  is no mention  of them.  For
            them, the other 12, am.rta is a keyword. Man's right
            aspiration  is declared  to be towards  a state, the
            state of the worthy  in other worlds, the deva which
            is void  of old age, illness  and  death.  And since
            death  was the most  serious  of the three, the word
            representing  all  three  was  "the  deathless", the
            imperishable.  Am.rta  was thus a term  much  in the
            thoughts, on the  lips  of  teachers  in  the  years
            preceding and accompanying the birth of Buddhism.
              Nor was it yet reduced to a merely poetic term  of
            supramundane sentimentality. It had gained new force
            new intensity.  For in a teaching of Immanence, then
            newly accepted  in Indian culture, am.rta was now no
            longer an attribute of the great Devas only, or of a
            supreme  world or heaven.  In a dim way it was being
            felt  that the very  self, the very man, as immanent
            deity, potentially  deity, is here and now immortal.
            It was man himself who was the pura, the city of the
            actual Immortal. And with the banishment of all that
            makes the man or aatmaa mortal, with
            ўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўw
              1  Am.rtasya  deva  dhaaranii  bhuuyaasa.m. Tait :
                 1,4,1.


                                    P.374


            the taking  into  the very  man  of Deity, fear  was
            banished.    Thus    we   find   no-fear(abhaya)   a
            co-attribute with the immortal. The Chaandogya calls
            man "Brahman, immortal, fearless."  The Ka.tha says:
            "the  self,  undecaying, undying, immortal, fearless
            (amaro  am.rto abhayas) is Brahman".  All devas were
            called  immortal:  "as  immortal   deva  he  becomes
            immortal". ўw so Kau.siitakii.
              We can see that the term, though in form negative,
            is as to its content positve.  Undying, or not-dying
            means actually "more-living".  In Kau.siitakii Indra
            is made to say: "I am praa.na (breath of life); I am
            aatmaa  (living  spirit);  as such, reverence  me as
            life-duration(aayus),  as  immortality, for  so  one
            reaches  fll term  here, and in the next  world  one
            obtains immortality, imperishableness (ak.siiti).
              Our own traditional religious teaching is not free
            from the teaching  in that  last clause: in the next
            world.. We are told we awake to immortality at death
            ўw a teaching  for me as mistaken  as to say: man is
            mortal, but  by rite, prayer  or faith  can  be made
            immortal. It is only when Buddhism lifts its earlier
            voice, that we see clearer  notions  about  the long
            way of man, immortal  but in mortal  conditions.  In
            the Iti-vuttaka  we have a Sutta, I believe  unique,
            on the  dying  in the  next  world  of  a deva, as a
            phenomenon  no less inevitable than it is here.  The
            deva on dying is expected to be returning  to earth.
            That he might be worthy  to be reborn parentless  in
            the worthier Brahmaa-world is nowhere told; ўw it is
            a curious lacuna.  But the Sayer was only interested
            in the dying  deva's  having  possibly  the luck  to
            catch a Buddha teaching on earth.
              But  it is clear  that  the deva would not  attain
            amata just by being deva.  The attha or End which he
            sought ўw this was the pre-Nirvaa.na summum bonum ўw
            as  not  yet   this.   Attha,  as  we  know,  became
            depreciated, to mean, in later Buddhism "meaning" or
            literary  "spirit"  as against  "letter";  in  later
            Sanskrit to mean " business, affairs."  But not when
            Buddhism began!


                                    P.375


            Had  this  depreciation  not taken  place, we should
            have found  the word amata linked, not as it came to
            be, with  nirvaa.na, but  with  attha.  Usually  the
            linking with nirvaa.na is the explaining of amata by
            nirvaa.na, showing that the term nirvaa.na as summum
            bonum  was later.(I  say "usually", for I have found
            amata in a list of 26 synonyms for nirvaa.na.)
              Let us now come to the birth of Buddhism.This took
            effect with the word amata as a very trumpet-call to
            the New Word, or, to cite the Paali metaphor, as the
            beating of the drum that brought news. It is odd how
            we have overlooked this! Look at the accounts in the
            Paali  Canon  of the  hesitating  man  Gotama, being
            inspired to teach and ўw if we translate  rightly ўw
            what to teach.  The vision has come to him, to whom,
            as very psychic, visions were no novelty. The man of
            a worthier  world is begging him to teach, and it is
            in these  terms: "Do thou  now open the gate  of the
            immortal! Teach men now perishing, and they will not
            perish;  they will grow." There flashed upon Gotama,
            as he watches  the water-lilies, insight  into man's
            nature as a perpetual  becoming, and he responds  to
            the vision : "Wide open is the gate of the immortal!
            They  who have  ears  to hear, let them  send  forth
            faith to meet it!" And soon after, when accosted  by
            Upaka  about  his  radiant  mien, he ends  with: "To
            found  the kingdom  of the true...  I will  beat the
            drum of the immortal in a world grown blind."
              I  see no reason  to doubt, that in this  ecstatic
            language   we  have,  not  the  enthusiasm   of  the
            metre-making   editor   only,  but  that,  in  great
            exaltation after weary doubt Gotama  did utter words
            like  these.  Had the editor  (as was too often  the
            case) Had  the  fashioning  of them, we should  have
            found, not the immortal, but  nirvaa.na.  But before
            nirvaa.na came into the religious idiom of Buddhism,
            as  the  summum  bonum, we can  see, that  what  the
            earnest  seeker  had in mind  as his quest  was, not
            nirvaa.na, but amata, the Buddhist seeker as well as
            the  Brahmin.  The early  Upani.sads, I repeat, show
            this over and over again. Thus


                                    P.376


            Chaandogya: "This  Brahman  who is "in" the pura  of
            man's  heart  : this should  be searched  for;  this
            surely is what one should desire to know...this does
            not grow old; it is ageless, deathless. (8,1,4.) And
            Kena: "with knowledge  one finds the immortal".  And
            B.rhadaara~nyaka: "Were the whole world mine, should
            I be thereby  immortal?" ўw a woman's question.  And
            so on.
              Turn  now to the Paali Monks' Anthology : we  find
            men  described  as seeking  after  amata, not  after
            nirvaa.na: Uttiya "left the life in the world on the
            quest of amata" (1). And Ajjuna of Saavatthi "joined
            the new Jain Order  thinking  among  them  to win to
            amata"(2) (I cite  the Commentary, which  took final
            shape  much later, but the two citations  are in the
            story  of the exegesis, and have  all the appearance
            at least  of belonging  to the  traditional  account
            handed down about the two men.)
              But  the most noted cases of search for amata  are
            in the Canon itself, the Vinaya. These, as is known,
            introduce  us to two famous figures, leading  men of
            Gotama's disciples, Saariputta  and Moggallaana, men
            who would  have exerted  a marked  influence  on the
            youth   of  the  Order's   history,  had  they   not
            predeceased  the  Founder.  I linger  a minute  over
            this, because  it  is  a striking  instance  of  the
            blindness  of us  inquirers  into  Buddhism, and  of
            Buddhists, as well as an object-lesson of the way in
            which  a new teaching, quite  other  than amata, was
            elbowing the quest for this out of the centre of the
            young mission's teaching.
              Saariputta and Moggallaana were the leading pupils
            of the sceptical  sophist Sa~njaya.  And one day, as
            the  two  were  looking  on at a big  f Ўј te on the
            hillside, one said  to the other: "In  less  than  a
            hundred  years not one of this crowd will be left on
            earth! "  Gravely  impressed  they  consulted  their
            teacher about man's hereafter.  He put them off with
            his "may  be," "may  not be," and they  decided  his
            teaching  was a hollow thing, since for the wise man
            this surely demanded a Yea or Nay. And they promised
            ўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўw
              1  Psalms of the Brethren, p.34, P.T.S. ed.
              2  Ib. p. 83.


                                    P.377


            each other that whichever  first found  light on the
            matter  would let the other know.  Saariputta  meets
            Assaji, one of the first of Gotama's  new disciples,
            and seeing  him radiantly  happy  asks  who  was his
            teacher  and  what  had  he  taught? Assaji  replies
            nervously, as a beginner, Saariputta waxing a little
            impatient, then he says: "the sama.na  Gotama of the
            Sakyans teaches the universality of causation." That
            is, I should judge, not with respect to the material
            world, but  the new  idea  of proto-Saankhya, namely
            the new analysis  of mind, of man's  inner world, as
            no  less  subject  to uniform  procedure  than  were
            outward  visible  things.  And then we are told, not
            that Saariputta  asked  whether  the sama.na  taught
            anything  about  amata, but  that  he  at  once  got
            insight  not into  man as immortal, but into  man as
            able to bring things  to an end, namely, by stopping
            the cause.  And more, he informs Moggallaana that he
            "won to the immortal," and both join Gotama.
              If  we look critically at this odd story,  we must
            surely  conclude  it is so utterly  inconsistent, so
            irrationally  so, that  we are, in the documents, up
            against  what  geologists  call a "fault," that  is,
            e.g.  when stratified  rock is found broken  into by
            unstratified  volcanic  rock.   The  quest  for  the
            immortal  belonged  to the age  of the  two  Brahmin
            students.  It was like a freshly superposed  stratum
            of sand on sand strata.  The finding  a solution  in
            causation  was like a mass of lava pouring  over the
            strata.  If we had  found  Saariputta, a man of high
            intelligence  in the tradition, finding in causation
            new light on his own quest, and discussing this with
            Assaji or Gotama, this would have been of surpassing
            interest.  But we do not; and my solution, published
            a decade  ago, is that we have here a mix-up  of the
            teaching of two teachers: Gotama and another who has
            remained nameless but who became known a exponent of
            the new mental analysis.
              My point to-day is, that we see here the outcrop of
            a new vogue, winning  later to the honour once given
            to  amata,  thrust  by  subsequent  editors  like  a
            stopper into the earlier ideal: the query


                                    P.378


            namely  of  the  early  Upani.sads:  kvaayam   tadaa
            puru.so bhavati? "Where does then ўw at death ўw the
            man come to be"? (B.rh., 3,2,13.)
              The editors of the Paali Canon have so shaped their
            materials as to show, that its teaching was from the
            first much interested in the idea of causation.  But
            not because it may be shown to be a sheet-anchor  of
            hope  in  life, namely,  that  you  cannot  initiate
            something    new,   something   better   without   a
            corresponding  result  inevitably  following.  Their
            idea is to show that by causation you can know, that
            if you want to stop  anything, you have only to stop
            the cause  of it.  And, as we know, a formula  which
            became famous was drawn up ўw when we do not know ўw
            giving only this one-sided application of causation.
              Now we may see, in what is a very precious  source
            of reference: ўw the  personal  poems  of monks  and
            nuns in the Anthologies  ўw how for a time the older
            interest   in  amata   as  a  religious   ideal  was
            maintained  side by side with interest  in causation
            as, if  not  an  ideal, yet  a  basis  in  religious
            attitude.  Of the 264  men-poets, only  two or three
            refer at all to causation.
              E.g. Migajaala :

                Showing a vision by the light of truth
                Of things as come to be by way of cause.(v.422.)

            and Adhimutta :

                To him who seeth as it really is,
                The pure and simple causal rise of things,
                The pure and simple sequel of our acts,
                To such an one can come no fear, O chief.(v.716).

              In the 73 nuns' poems I find four references to
              causation.
            E.g. Sakulaa :

                Act speech and thought I saw as not myself,
                Children of cause, fleeting, impermanent.(v. 101.)

            Pajaapatii :

                Now have I understood the cause of ill,
                And thirst,the cause in me, is dried up.(v.158.)


                                    P.379

            and Selaa :

                Neither self-made the human puppet is,
                nor by another is it fashioned;
                By reason of a cause it came to be,
                By reason of a cause it dies away. ( Sa.my. I,
                134,P.T.S. ed.)
            and Sumedhaa: ўw here the reference to cause is just
            an  editorial  comment  at the  end  of  this  long,
            remarkable and I think written poem:

                Endurance in the truth the Master taught.
                This was the cause, the source, the root,
                This the first link in the long causal line.
                (v.521.)

              But we can imagine how Sumedhaa would have sent her
            stylus   swiftly   scratching   many   lines   about
            causation, if it had appealed to her as integral  to
            her faith, so much has she to say about  that faith.
            Her very moving  peroration  is on the contrary  all
            about amata. Listen!

                Since Amata exists, what are for thee the bitter
                draughts of sense ?
                Since Amata exists, what are for thee the fevers
                of desire ?

              Amatamhi vijjamaane :ўwHow does she not reach back
            across the centuries, ўw perhaps four of them, ўw to
            the day of the "wide  open gate"  of amata? she goes
            on:

                This that doth ne'er grow old, that dieth not,
                This never ageing, never dying Way,
                No sorrow cometh there, no enemies,
                Nor is there any crowd, none faint or fail,
                No fear cometh, nor aught that doth torment,
                This the immortal by full many hath been won,
                And e'en to-day by many may be gained,
                So there be full surrender; he who striveth not
                He cannot. (v.v.506, 512-13.)

              Surely no one has ever got more rapture out of the
            negative  than this Buddhist  nun! If we compare her
            lines  with  those  on the Soma  Am.rta, you will be
            struck with the positive, and therefore the stronger
            force  in the  Veda  lines.  Yet  the  cloud  of the
            negative is more in the words than in the meaning.


                                    P.380

              I  cannot here and now stay over  the other antho-
            logies.  But  you may  remember  in Dhammapada, that
            interesting  collection  of the  very  old  and  the
            later, the line

                        Appamaado amatapada.m, (v.21).

            a saying  echoed in a Sutta wherein, in reply to the
            brahmin's  question: how to make  the  best  of this
            world and the hereafter, the Founder is said to have
            prescribed appamaado: earnestness  (1).  Less likely
            perhaps  are you to know  the  interesting  eloquent
            lines:

                  When now, when then he grasps the rise and fall
                  of many thing, rapture and joy he wins
                  with them who can discern the deathless That.
                  (v.374.)

            I found myself alone in connecting this amata.m ta.m
            vijaanata.m  with the idiom of the early Upani.sads,
            but compare Aitareyya:

                  So he knowing That became immortal.

            And Kau.siitakii :

                  He who knows this having reached That became
                  immortal.

            And Kena :

                  Knowing That, the wise become immortal.

            And B.rhadaara~nyaka :

                  That is the Immortal veiled by being.

              For the Anthologies the real rival concept is  not
            so much causation  as nirvaa.na, emerging  gradually
            as not merely a cathartic  discipline, but as summum
            bonum. The monks use it, roughly, as often as amata;
            the nuns use it far oftener. The case is the same in
            Dhammapada and Sutta-nipaata.
              When we look at the prose Suttas, we find the word
            amata, amatapada.m, tending to be used as a poetical
            notion.  The majjhima  calls the Buddha giver of the
            immortal (amatassa daataa)(2).  The Sa.myutta speaks
            of
            ўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўw
              1  Anguttara, iii, 364.
              2  i, iii;  195, 224 (P.T.S. ed.).


                                    P.381


                  The people when they seek to cross the stream
                  Ask for the land of immortality....(1).

            and so on. The word is still a name to conjure by.
              But  there had come in,  possibly from  the  Vedic
            association  of am.rta with Soma-juice, the fanciful
            metaphor  of  amata  as a divine  liquid, not  as of
            nectar, of ambrosia, to be  drunk  or eaten, by such
            as no longer  lived by either  the one or the other,
            but as sprinkled, as anointed by wise teaching  on a
            hearer.  Thus the aged ailing man Nakulapitar, after
            listening  to  the  Master, tells  a disciple, " the
            Blessed One by his religious  talk has sprinkled  me
            with amata(2)."
              When finally we come to the Commentaries and scho-
            lastic  books, we see the word amata either stolidly
            identified   with  nirvaa.na   or  else  passed  by.
            Further, and this  is important, if we look  through
            the   latter   books,   e.g.    Buddhaghosa's    and
            Buddhadatta's, we, to go by the ample  indexes, find
            the word almost or quite ignored.  It is clear that,
            for these  monks, and their world, the word, the old
            concept  of amata  has faded out.  Not for them were
            their  pulses  quickened  by the  throbbing  of  the
            Founder's drum of the immortal.
              The mere losing of a venerable term for the relig-
            ious  ideal  and substitution  of another  were less
            significant, had those monks clear vision about, not
            the  deathless, but  death;  did  they  see, in this
            every time, an opened gate, an apaaruta  dvaara to a
            finer  living  beyond, or, if  already  in  a  world
            beyond,  to  an  advance   in  the   discipline   of
            opportunity afforded by life again on earth. But for
            them there is little  of this;  there is manifest  a
            fear of death  ўw have  you ever  read Buddhaghosa's
            description of it? They seem to have been lacking in
            what  the men of beyond  could  have told  them, had
            they  maintained  the right  use  of Jhaana: ўw that
            death is for all a gentle friend, ridding  the dying
            man ўw I mean of course spirit ўw of the ailing body
            well before his last
            ўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўwўw
              1  Vol i, p.123.
              2  Sa.myutta III, I. Cf.Psalms of the Sisters,p.41.


                                    P.382


            breath  in a painless  waiting, or if suddenly, also
            with no pain at all. Fear of death and dread of life
            beyond  death because  it meant more bodily life: ўw
            such was the return Buddhism  got for letting go its
            vision of life as a whole.
              And  even in such vision ascribed to its  teachers
            of the next world, where  the good  deed here  found
            reward  there, we only meet  with  a low picture  of
            physical pleasures and comfort.  We find no evidence
            of  good  life  here  finding  reward  in  a  higher
            standard of spiritual values there. You have only to
            read the Vimaanavatthu  anthology, shortly I hope to
            be published, to see this.
              How much nearer akin is the resounding drum of the
            Founder's  outburst  to the triumphant  song  of the
            Hebrews: "Lift  up your  heads, ye doors, and  be ye
            lift up, ye everlasting  gates, and the Man of glory
            shall come in!"
              Or even to our own dramatist echoing those words :

                  "Then heaven! set ope thine everlasting gates!"


     

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