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    Philosophy of Vasubandhu in Vimsatika and Trimsika
     
    [ 作者: Surendra Nath Das Gupta   来自:期刊原文   已阅:2640   时间:2007-1-5   录入:douyuebo
    49tjf49edf:Article:ArticleID


    ·期刊原文
    Philosophy of Vasubandhu in Vimsatika and Trimsika

    By Surendra Nath Das Gupta


    The Indian Historical Quarterly,


    vol 4:1, March, 1928 p.36-43

     

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   p. 36

                The scheme of Vedanta philosophy  is surprisingly
            similar to the idealism of Vasubandhu  (280-360 A.D.)
            as taught in his Vimsatika with a short commentary of
            his own and Trimsika with a commentary  of Sthiramati
            on it.(1) According to this Vijnanavada (idealism) of
            Vasubandhu all appearances are but transformations of
            the  principle  of  consciousness   by  its  inherent
            movement  and none of our cognitions  are produced by
            any external  objects which to us seem to be existing
            outside  of us and generating  our ideas.  Just as in
            dreams one experiences different objects in different
            places   and  countries   without   there  being  any
            objective  existence  of  them  or as in dreams  many
            people may come together and perform various actions,
            so  what  seems  to be  a real  world  of  facts  and
            external  objects  may  well  be  explained  as  mere
            creations  of the principle  of intelligence  without
            any  objective  basis  at all.  All that  we know  as
            subjective  or objective are mere ideation (vijnapti)
            and  there  is no  substantive  reality  or  entities
            corresponding  to them, but that  does  not mean that
            pure  non-conceptual   (anabhilapyenatmana)   thought
            which  the saints  realise  is also  false.(2)  It is
            possible  that the awareness  of anything  may become
            the  object  of  a  further  awareness, and  that  of
            another, but in all such cases where the awareness is
            significant  (arthavati)  there  are  no entities  or
            reality as represented  by them;  but this should not
            be  interpreted  as  a denial  of  the  principle  of
            intelligence or pure know-
            _________________

            1 Vijnaptimatratasiddhi  containing  two  treatises
              of Vi and Trimsika.  Paris 1925.

            2 Yo balair dharmanam svabhavo grahyagrahakadih pari-
              kalpitas tena kalpitenatmana tesam nairatmyam  na
              tvanabhilapyenatmana yo buddhanam visaya iti.
              Commentary on Vimsika, p. 6.


                                   p. 37

            ledge  as such.  Vasubandhu  then undertakes  to show
            that the perceptual  evidence of the existence of the
            objective  world  cannot  be  trusted.  He says  that
            taking  visual  perception  as an example  we may ask
            ourselves if the objects of the visual perception are
            one as a whole or many as atoms.  They cannot be mere
            wholes, for wholes would imply parts;  they cannot be
            of the  nature  of atoms  for  such  atoms  are  not;
            separately perceived; they cannot be of the nature of
            the combination  of atoms, for the existence of atoms
            cannot  not be proved.  (1) For if six atoms  combine
            from  six sides, that  implies  that  the atoms  have
            parts, for if six atoms combine  with one another  at
            one identical  point, it would mean that the combined
            group would not have its size bigger  than that of an
            atom and would therefore  be invisible.  Again if the
            objects of awareness and perception were only wholes,
            then suc- cession and sequence would be unexplainable
            and our perception  of separate  and distinct  things
            would remain unaccountable.  So, though  they have no
            real objective existence, yet perception  leads us to
            believe that they have. People are dreaming the world
            of objects  in the sleep of the instinctive  roots of
            the   habit   of   false   imaginative   construction
            (vitathavik-  alpabhyasavasananidraya)  and  in their
            dreams they construct  the objective  world and it is
            only   when  they  would   become   awake   with  the
            transcendent    indeterminate    knowledge   (lokott-
            aranirvikalpajnanalabhat prabuddho bhavati) that they
            would  find the world-construction  to be as false as
            the dream-construction  of  diverse  appearances.  In
            such a view there is no objective  material world and
            our cognitions are not influenced by outside objects;
            how   then   are   our  minds   influenced   by  good
            instructions  and associations, and since  none of us
            have  any  real  physical  bodies, how can  one  kill
            another? Vasubandhu  explains this by the theory that
            the  thought-currents  of  new  person  can sometimes
            determine the thought-yam na sidhyati Ibid., p. 7.
            ____________________

            1 Napi te samhata visayibhavanti, yasmat paramanurekam
              dravyam na sidhyati.  Ibid., p.7.


                                   p. 38

            currents  of another.  Thus the idea of killing  of a
            certain  type may produce  such a disturbance  of the
            vital powers of another as to produce a cessation  of
            the continuity  of one's  thought-processes  which is
            called  death.(1)  So also the good ideas  of one may
            influence the ideas of another for good.

                In the Trimsika of Vasubandhu  and its commentary
            by  Sthiramati,  this   idealism   is  more   clearly
            explained.  It is said  that  both  the soul  (or the
            knower) and all that it knows as subjective  ideas or
            as external  objects existing  outside  of us are but
            transformations       of      pure       intelligence
            (vijnanaparinama).  The transformation  (parinama  of
            pure intelligenoe  means the production  of an effect
            different    from   that   of   the   causal   moment
            simultaneously  at the time  of the cessation  of the
            causal moment.(2)  There is neither  externality  nor
            subjectivity  in pure  intelligence, but still  these
            are imposed on it (vijnana-  svarupe parikalpita  eva
            atama  dharmasca).  All erroneous  impositions  imply
            that there must be some entity  which is mistaken  as
            something else. There cannot be erroneous impositions
            on mere vacuity;  so these erroneous  impositions  of
            various kinds of external  characteristics, self etc.
            have  to  be  admitted  to  have  been  made  on  the
            transformations   of   pure   intelligence.(3)   Both
            Vasubandhu and Sthiramati repudiate the suggestion of
            those extreme idealists  who deny also the reality(4)
            of   pure   intelligence   on  grounds   of  interde-
            __________________________

            1 Paravijnaptivisesadhipatyat paresam jivitendriyavi-
              rodhim kacit vikriya utpadyate yaya sabhagasantati-
              vicchedakhyam maranam bhavati.
              Vimsatika, p.10.

            2 Karanaksannirodhasamakalah karanaksanavilaksanakar-
              yasya atmalabhah parinamah. Sthiramati's Commentary
              on Trimsika, p.16.

            3 Upacarasya ca niradharasyasambhavad avasyam vijnana
              parinamo vastuto'sty upagantavyo yatra atmadharmo-
              pacarah pravarttate. Na hi niraspada mrgatrsnikadayah.
              Ibid. Compare Sankara's Commentary on Gaudapada's
              Karika.

            4 Thus Lankavatara, one of the most important works
              on Buddhistic idealism, denies the real transfor-
              mation of the pure intelligence or alayavijnana.
              See Lankavatara, p. 46.

     

                                   p. 39

            pendence or-relativity  (samvrti).  Vasubandhu holds
            that  pure  consciousness  (vijnaptimatrata)  is  the
            ultimate reality.  This ultimate  consciousness  is a
            permanent  entity which by its inherent power (sakti)
            undergoes  threefold  transformation  as the inherent
            indeterminate  inner  changes  (vipaka)  which  again
            produce the two other kinds of transformation  as the
            inner psychoses of mental operations  (manana) and as
            the perception  of the so-called  external  sensibles
            (visayavijnapti).

                The   apprehension    of   all   appearances   or
            characterised   entities  (dharma)  as  the  cognised
            objects and that of selves and cognisers, the duality
            of  perceivers  and  the  perceived  is  due  to  the
            threefold   transformation   of  vipaka,  manana  and
            visayavijnapti.     The    ultimate     consciousness
            (vijnaptimatra) which suffers all these modifications
            is    called    alayavijnana    in    its    modified
            transformations, because it is the repository  of all
            experiences.  The ultimate principle of consciousness
            is regarded as absolutely  permanent in itself and is
            consequently  also  of the nature  of pure  happiness
            (sukha), for what is not eternal is painful  and this
            being eternal is happy.(l) When a saint's mind become
            fixed  (pratisthita)   in  this  pure  consciousness(
            vijnaptimatra), the tendency  of dual thought  of the
            subjective  and  the objective  (grahyagrahakanusaya)
            ceases   and  there   dawns  the  pure  indeterminate
            (nirvikalpa)     and     transcendent     (lokottara)
            consciousness.  It is a state  in which  the ultimate
            pure consciousness runs back from its transformations
            and  rests   in  itself.   It  is  divested   of  all
            afflictions  (klesa)  or touch of vicious  tendencies
            and is therefore  called anasrava.  It is unthinkable
            and  undemonstrable  because  it is on one hand  pure
            self-consciousness  (pratyatmavedya)  and omniscience
            (sarvajnata)  as  it is divested  of all  limitations
            (avarana)
            ___________________________

            1 Druvo nityatvat aksayataya; sukho nityatvad eva ya-
              danityam tad duhkham ayam ca  nitya iti asmat sukhah.
              Sthiramati's commentary on Trimsika, p. 44.


                                   p. 40

            and on the other hand it is unique in itself.(1) This
            pure  consciousness  is called  the container  of the
            seed   of  all   (sarvabija)   and  when   its  first
            indeterminate  and indefinable transformations  rouse
            the    psychosis-transformations    and   also    the
            transformations  as sense-perceptions, these mutually
            act  and  react  against  one another  and  thus  the
            different  series  rise again  and again and mutually
            determine one another. These transformations are like
            waves and ripples  on the ocean where each is as much
            as the product of others as well as the generator  of
            others.(2)

                In this view thought (vijnana)  is regarded  as a
            real  subtance  and  its  transformations   are  also
            regarded as real and it is these transformations that
            are  manifested  as the selves  and the  charactrised
            appearances.(3)  The  first  type  of transformations
            called vipaka is in a way the ground of the other two
            transformations   which  contain   the  indeterminate
            materials  out  of which  the  manifestations  of the
            other two transformations appear.  But as has already
            been pointed  out, these  three  different  types  of
            transformations again mutually determine one another.
            The vipaka transformations  constain  within them the
            seeds of the constructive  instincts  (vikalpavasana)
            of  the   selves   as  cognisers,  the   constructive
            instincts  of colours, sounds  etc., the  substantive
            basis  (asraya)  of the attribution  of this  twofold
            constructive  instinct as well as the sense-faculties
            and   the  localisation   of  space-   determinations
            (sthanavijnapti      or     bhajanalokasannivesa-vij-
            ________________________

            1 Alayavijnana in this ultimate state of pure consci-
              ousness  (vijna-primatrata   is  called  the  cause
              (dhatu)  of all  virtues, and  being  the  ultimate
              state  in which  all  the dharmas, or characterised
              appearances, had lost all their  limitations  it is
              called  the  dharmakaya  of the  Buddha  (mahamnueh
              bhumiparamitadibhavanaya          klesajneyavarana-
              prahanat...     sarvadharmavibhutualabhata's     ca
              dharmakaya ity ucyate).

            2 Tac ca varttate srotasanghavat. Ibid., p. 21.

            3 Avasyam vijnanaparinamo vastuto'sty upagantavyo
              yatratmadharinopacarah pravarttate. Ibid., p.16.


                                   p. 41

            napti). They are also associated in another mode with
            sense-modifications involving the triune of the sense
            (indriya), sense-object  (visaya) and cognition  (and
            each  of these  triune  is again  associated  with  a
            characteristic  affective tone corresponding with the
            affective  tones  of the  other  two  members  of the
            triune   in  a  one   to  one   relation),  attention
            (manaskara),   discrimination    (samjna),   volition
            (cetana)   and  feeling   (vedana).(1)   The   vipaka
            transformations  have no determinate or limited forms
            (aparicchinnalambanakara)   and  there  are  here  no
            actualised  emotional states of attachment, antipathy
            or the like  which  are associated  with  the  actual
            pleasurable   or   painful   feelings.   The   vipaka
            transformations  thus  give us the basic  concept  of
            mind  and  its  principal   functions  with  all  the
            potentialities    of    determinate    snbject-object
            consciousness  and its processes.  There are here the
            constructive  tendencies of selves as perceivers, the
            objective constructive  tendencies of colours, sounds
            etc., the  sense-faculties  etc.  attention, feeling,
            discrimination, volition  and sense-functioning.  But
            none  of these  have  any determinate  and actualised
            forms.  The second  grade  of transformations  called
            ___________________________

            1 Feeling (vedana) is distinguished  here as  painful,
              pleasurable, and  as  the  basic  entity  which  is
              neither  painful  nor pleasurable, which is feeling
              per se (vedana anubhavasvabhava, sa punar visayasya
              ahlada- kaparitapakatadubhayakaraviviktasvarupasaks
              kaparita  This feeling per se must be distinguished
              again  from  the non-pleasurable-  painful  feeling
              existing  along  with the two other  varieties, the
              painful  and  the  pleasurable.   Here  the  vipaka
              transformations  are regaded as evolving  the basic
              entity    of   feeling    and   it   is   therefore
              undifferentiated  in it as pleasure  or pain and is
              hence called "feeling as indifference (upeksa)" and
              undifferentiated (avyakrta). The differentiation of
              feeling  as pleasurable  or as painful  takes place
              only as a further determination of the basic entity
              of feeling evolved in the vipaka transformations of
              good  and bad deeds  (subhasubhakarmavipaka).  Good
              and bad (subhasubha)  are to be distinguished  from
              moral   and   immoral   as  potential   and  actual
              determinations of virtuous and vicious actions.


                                   p. 42

            manana represents  the actual evolution  of moral and
            immoral emotions  and it is here that the mind is set
            in motion  by the ignorant  references  to the mental
            elements  as the self, and from this ignorance  about
            the  self  is engendered  self-love (atma-sneha)  and
            egoism  (atma-mana).   These  references   are  again
            associated  with the fivefold universal categories of
            sense  functioning, feeling, attention, volition  and
            discrimination.   Then  comes  the  third   grade  of
            transformations   which   are  associated   with  the
            fivefold  universal  categories   together  with  the
            special manifestations  of concerte sense-perceptions
            and  the various  kinds  of intellectual  states  and
            moral  and  immoral  mental  states  such  as  desire
            (chanda)  for different  kinds  of sense-experiences,
            decisions   (adhimoksa)    in   conclusions    firmly
            established  by perceptions, reasoning  etc., memory,
            attentive  reflection   (samadhi),  wisdom  (prajna),
            faith   and  firm  will   for  the  good   (sraddha),
            shamefulness   (hri)  for  the  bad  etc.   The  term
            alayavijnana  is given to all these  three  types  of
            transformations, but  there  is underneath  it as the
            permanent passive ground the eternal and unchangeable
            pure thought (vijnaptimatrata).

                It may be pointed out here that in this system of
            philosophy  the  eternal  and  unchangeable   thought
            substance  undergoes  by virtue of its inner dynamics
            three different  orders of superficial  changes which
            are compared  with constantly  changing  streams  and
            waves.  The  first  of  these  represents  the  basic
            changes  which  later  determine  all subjective  and
            objective   possibilities;   the  second  starts  the
            process  of the psychosis  by the original  ignorance
            and  false  attribution   of  self-hood  to  non-self
            elements, self-love  and  egoism, and  in  the  third
            grade   we  have   all   the  concrete   mental   and
            extra-mental  facts.  The fundamental categories make
            the  possibility  of mind, mental  processes  and the
            extra-mental  relations  evolve in the first stage of
            the transformation  and these abide through the other
            two stages of the transformation  and become more and
            more  complex   and  concrete   in  course  of  their
            association with the categories


                                   p. 43

            of  the  other  transformations.   In  analysing  the
            knowledge  situation, Vasubandhu  does  not hold that
            our awareness  of blue is only a modification  of the
            "awareness"  but  he  thinks  that  an awareness  has
            always two relations, a relation  with the subject or
            the knower  (grahakagraha)  and a relation  with  the
            object  which  is known  (grahyagraha).  Blue  as  an
            object is essential  for making an awareness  of blue
            possible, for the awareness  is not blue, but we have
            an awareness of the blue.  But Vasubandhu argues that
            this psychological  necessity  is due to a projection
            of objectivity as a necessary function of determinate
            thought  and  it does  not at all  follow  that  this
            implies that there are real external objects existing
            outside  of  it  and  generating   the  awareness  as
            external agent.  Psychological  objectivity  does not
            imply ontological  objectivity.  It is argued that if
            the agency of objective entities in the production of
            sense-knowledge  be admitted, there could  not be any
            case  where  sense-knowledge  can  be admitted  to be
            produced  without  the  operation  of  the  objective
            entities, but  since  in dreams  and  illusions  such
            sense-knowledge  is  universally  regarded  as  being
            produced   without  the  causal  operation   of  such
            objective   entities,  no  causal  operation  can  be
            admitted to the objective entities for the production
            of sense-knowledge.


     

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