首 页  |  中国禅学  |  禅学三书  |  慈辉论坛  |  佛学论文  |  最新上传  |  文学频道  |  佛缘论坛  |  留言簿   |

 管理登陆        吴言生 创办              图片中心    关于本网     佛教研究所 主办


  • 人类,放过野味吧![103]

  • 送你十大智慧,解烦恼笑开颜[110]

  • 福到了,那你能接住吗?一个公[129]

  • 民间信仰是迷信吗?佛教对“迷[141]

  • 这两件事佛做不到,别去求了[119]

  • 诵持“大悲咒”,有何功德利益[126]

  • 中国古代没有哲学阐释学吗?[109]

  • 寺为何叫寺,庙为何叫庙?寺的[119]

  • 扫尘除垢,积清净福,他靠扫地[149]

  • 明心:真正爱你的人,一定会带[118]

  • 佛教故事丨过滤语言的三个筛子[115]

  • 【菩提一叶】二十六刀的故事[112]



  • 本站推荐

    恭迎文殊菩萨成道日

    佛识慧集(二十五):

    佛源老和尚:这就是


       您现在的位置: 佛学研究网 >> E3英文佛教 >> [专题]e3英文佛教 >> 正文


    The foundations of ecology in Zen Buddhism
     
    [ 作者: Ven. Sunyana Graef   来自:期刊原文   已阅:1638   时间:2007-1-9   录入:douyuebo


    ·期刊原文
    The foundations of ecology in Zen Buddhism

    by Ven. Sunyana Graef
    Religious Education

    Vol. 85 Issue 1 Winter.1990

    Pp.42-48

    Copyright by Religious Education

     

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Vermont Zen Center Shelburne, VT 05482

    If you yourself, who are the valley streams and mountains, cannot develop
    the power which illuminates the true reality of the mountains and valley
    streams, who else is going to be able to convince you that you and the
    streams and mountains are one and the same?

    --Zen Master Dogeni(n1)

    Perhaps it is part of being human to question who and what we are.
    Unfortunately, because we rely almost exclusively on our senses, the harder
    we look, the more we misinterpret what we see. We believe on the one hand
    that we are an insignificant dot in the universe, separate from all other
    humans, much less the natural world. But we also believe that we are the
    most highly evolved organism in creation, entitled to use whatever we can
    grasp for our own ends.

    Buddhists have a different view of humanity. In terms of their
    psycho-spiritual development people stand about midway between Buddhas and
    amoebas. However, on an absolute level, people, Buddhas, amoebas, dogs,
    streams, and mountains are one and the same. Buddhism addresses the
    apparent disparity between what we see and what we actually are. And it
    does so by delving into the roots of what it means to be human.

    What does this have to do with Buddhist ecology? It is inseparable from it.
    For Buddhist ecology can no more be sundered from knowing the nature of our
    true self than mountains and streams can be sundered from our true self.
    The premise of Zen Buddhist ecology is this: When we understand what we
    really are, we will be at peace with ourselves and our environment. We will
    cease trying to enlarge ourselves through possessions and power, take
    responsibility for our universal self -- the world -- and start living to
    give, rather than get.

    A life of wisdom is a life in harmony with the natural world. In an age
    where filthy refuse washes up on shorelines, where we raze vast forests by
    the minute, where we pollute the air and water with chemicals, the thought
    of living in harmony with the natural world seems a long-forgotten dream.
    Like a sand castle swept away by waves we are eroding the very foundation
    of our existence. Still, we can return to a simpler, more careful, watchful
    way of life -- if we know the path.

    There is a story that senior Zen practitioners often tell novices. It is
    about a monk in search of a teacher, but of course, it is about much more
    than that. Like many such tales it seems inscrutable at first, then
    unattainable, and finally inspiring. It has relevance here because it
    betokens a manner of living which embodies the essence of Zen ecology.

    It was the custom in ancient China for Zen monks to refine and deepen their
    spiritual understanding by travelling throughout the country to study with
    respected teachers. One such monk had heard that a renowned Zen master
    lived in seclusion near a river, and he was determined to find him and
    train with him. After many weeks of travel he found the master's dwelling.
    Gazing at the river before the master's hut, the monk was filled with joy
    at the thought of soon meeting his teacher. Just then he saw a cabbage leaf
    slip into the water and float downstream. Disillusioned and greatly
    disappointed, the monk immediately turned to leave. As he did, out of the
    corner of his eye he saw the venerable teacher running to the river, his
    robe flapping wildly in the wind. The old man chased the cabbage leaf,
    fished it from the water, and brought it back to his hut. The monk smiled
    and turned back. He had found his master.

    To understand why the monk would abandon his teacher before even meeting
    him is to know the foundations of Zen Buddhist ecology. Why would a single
    discarded cabbage leaf provoke such intense disillusionment? Was the monk a
    fanatical environmentalist who found even this minor bit of pollution from
    his master-to-be untenable? Or was there something else he perceived? After
    all, most people would think nothing of scrapping one leaf of cabbage.
    Surely few would consider it wasteful. And if it happened to fall into a
    stream . . . well. With the land and sea so clogged with the detritus of
    civilization, a cabbage leaf drifting downstream would seem an
    insignificant, perhaps even pleasant. sight. To the monk, however, the
    errant leaf signified much more. Litter, waste, yes, but also a window to
    his would-be teacher's spiritual attainment. For the perceptive monk, it
    was, for a moment, persuasive proof that the master had not yet penetrated
    the last barrier of Zen.

    The way we relate to and interact with the environment says more about us
    than our awards, Ph.D.s, and business successes. It says more about us than
    our Chagalls, diamond rings, and three-bedroom homes. For it is not what we
    have, but the way we live that reveals the inner person. To be indifferent
    to even a leaf of cabbage exposes a dualistic view of the world: I exist
    here, and the world and all it contains is out there --for me to do with as
    I please. Such carelessness betrays an unawareness of the singular value of
    each aspect of creation. This awareness, the soul of Zen Buddhist ecology,
    is not something most people are born with; it grows through years of
    religious education, training, and practice.

    The goal of Buddhist ecology is much more than an unpolluted environment.
    It is a life of simplicity, conservation, and self-restraint. Ultimately
    this ecology is a manifestation of the spiritual realization of the
    individual. It is born in the individual, and comes to fruition through the
    individual's religious understanding and practice. Rooted in action, not
    intellectual understanding, in the end it is actualized and expressed
    through the deeds of one's daily life. Such mundane chores as taking out
    the garbage, cooking a meal, cleaning the toilet, and working in the garden
    are all occasions for the cultivation of spiritual awareness.

    For the monk, the discarded leaf testified that the master lacked this
    awareness. It indicated that he had not entirely purged himself of an
    egocentric view of creation. Misconstruing the actual nature of phenomena,
    he still had the outlook of an ordinary person. Certainly this was not what
    one would expect from a deeply enlightend Zen Master.

    Buddhist ecology, then, must emanate from spiritual education and
    discipline. For a Zen practitioner this discipline begins with a type of
    meditation called zazen. The practice of Zen meditation allows one to
    center, focus, and quiet the mind. The word "zazen" means sitting with the
    mind focused or totally absorbed in one thing. Ordinarily the mind is so
    clouded with irrelevant thoughts, fantasies, worries, judgments, and
    desires that we are unable to see things as they truly are. We live in a
    dream, spending our days in vain regrets and denials of the past, while
    anticipating the future with worries and hopes. And so, the present escapes
    us before we have even taken note of it.

    The object of Zen training is to learn how to live in the here and now --
    to take this instant just as it is. The practice of Zen demands consummate
    attention to the task at hand: full awareness and total involvement at
    every moment. For example, the position of head cook in the Zen monastery
    is traditionally held by the most spiritually advanced monk or nun, for
    only such a person can accord food the respect and care it demands. Zen
    Master Dogen said that a cook must treat rice and vegetables as if they
    were his own eyes. He admonished the monastery cook about the proper
    attitude toward the preparation of food in these words:

    Keep your eyes open. Do not allow even one grain of rice to be lost. Wash
    the rice thoroughly, put it in the pot, light the fire, and cook it. There
    is an old saying that goes, "See the pot as your own head, see the water as
    your lifeblood."(n2)

    The practice of unremitting attentiveness and awareness enables --actually
    forces -- one to face every moment without the cloak of judgments. Having
    mastered this discipline, one is able to confront the most fundamental
    pollution of all, the pollution of the Mind -- our pure or Buddha nature --
    with the mind -- our discursive intellect grounded in ego.

    From a Zen Buddhist standpoint the intellect and its henchman, the ego, are
    the primary causes of all pollution. Nevertheless it is not by the
    elimination of intellect, but by understanding its proper function, that we
    eradicate the source of pollution. The intellect's primary role is to
    assess the phenomenal world through categorization, analysis, and judgment.
    Because we ordinarily view everything through this faculty, we divide our
    environment into that which we perceive as being either internal or
    external. In so doing, we invent a "me" bounded by "my" sensations, "my"
    thoughts, "my"needs, "my" desires. This "me," called in Buddhism the ego-I,
    so dominates the personality that it eventually becomes an omnipresent
    dictator, affecting not only oneself but one's associates are well. Despite
    our blind belief in the verity of this small self or ego, in truth it does
    not exist. The practice of Zen points out a way to free oneself from the
    clench of ego by delineating clearly the nature of the essential self. Once
    we discover the unreality of the ego-I, we no longer relate to the world
    from an individual, self-centered perspective, but rather from a universal
    perspective. This is the weltanschauung of a true ecologist.

    Virtually no one is born with this unitive world-view. How does one acquire
    it? Actually, many people experience glimmerings of the interconnectedness
    of life at one time or another. Such insights often change the way they see
    the world, making them feel more a part of it and therefore more
    responsible for its welfare. A student told me he first became convinced of
    the unity of all existence while swimming:

    For a moment, everything dropped away. There was no beach, no ocean, no
    sound, no movement, no me. Everything was joined in perfect harmony, a
    nothingness bursting with all things. I was filled with indescribable joy
    and wonder. The feeling lasted just a fraction of a second, but I have
    never forgotten it. Years later, it was the memory of this experience that
    led me to Zen practice.

    Others tell of similar experiences while walking in the woods, listening to
    music, skiing, sitting quietly, baking, and doing just about anything else
    imaginable. For most, the insight soon fades, leaving a evanescent sense of
    the oneness of all life. The desire to relive and harness this experience
    often galvanizes people to undertake a spiritual journey.

    Self-realization or awakening brings the unshakable conviction that
    everything is intrinsically one, whole, and complete. In time, feelings
    that had arisen from an intellectual acceptance or a nebulous impression of
    oneness become a sure knowledge of the unity of all life. With spiritual
    awakening comes the realization that we are not just a tiny speck in the
    universe, two hands, two legs, a face, and a mind, but that we embrace all
    existence. In other words, awakening brings the realization that we are no
    less than the universe itself. This the Buddha affirmed in these words:

    Verily, I declare unto you that within this very body, mortal though it be
    and only a fathom high, but conscious and endowed with mind, is the world
    and the waxing thereof and the waning thereof, and the way that leads to
    the passing away thereof.(n3)

    The Buddhist does not believe that the trees, the water, the stars, and the
    great wide earth possess a divinity obtained through God's process of
    creation. Rather, he or she is convinced that the essence of the universe
    is none other than divine perfection itself, in a word, Buddha. This
    understanding, grounded in an awareness of the interdependent relationship
    of all existence, spontaneously gives rise to feelings of profound
    intimacy, universal compassion, and responsibility for the natural world.
    Zen Master Eisai expressed it this way:

    Because I am, heaven overhangs and earth is upheld. Because I am, the sun
    and the moon go round. The four seasons come in succession, all things are
    born, because I am, that is, because of Mind.(n4)

    If at a deep level we accept that all phenomena are in essence one with our
    own body, we will treat everything, animate and inanimate, with reverence.
    Since we are not separate entitites, what happens to the universe happens
    to us as well. Buddhist ecology, therefore, encompasses not just this
    planet, but the whole cosmos.

    A person of the deepest spirituality will also have a tender concern for
    every aspect of creation. Such an individual could no more harm a living
    creature than he or she could harm himself or herself. Buddhist scriptures
    contend that a bodhisattva(n5) will not even walk on grass lest it be
    harmed. Indeed, the first Buddhist precept is the admonition not to kill,
    but to cherish all life. This attitude is especially important with respect
    to food, since anything we eat must die to sustain us. Still, it is less
    destructive, on a relative level, to take the life of a carrot or an apple
    than to take that of a more highly evolved form of life, such as a cow, a
    chicken, or a lobster. Too, from a purely ecological point of view, it is
    less detrimental to the environment to eat as low as possible on the food
    chain. All this explains why many Buddhists are vegetarians.

    There is another important aspect of Buddhism that bears upon ecology.
    Buddhism teaches the doctrine of karma, which is the law of cause and
    effect relating to our actions. Karma means that whatever one sows, one
    reaps, be it good or evil. The consequences of meritorious acts are always
    good. Evil acts, on the other hand, ensure painful retribution. Buddhists
    are aware that we are constantly creating new karma by our actions. One who
    believes in the law of causation, therefore, will be careful not to cause
    pain to people, animals, plants, or the earth itself, for harming them is
    simultaneously harming oneself.

    This takes place on two levels. From the view of spiritual realization, we
    harm ourselves each time we harm the environment because we are the
    environment. From the view of the law of causation, we harm ourselves
    because we create negative karma from which we will suffer sooner or later.
    A devout Buddhist could never, for example, dump toxic chemicals into a
    river, for he or she would unequivocally know that he or she is poisoning
    himself or herself in both an immediate and future sense. That is, he or
    she is poisoning his or her absolute body -- the world -- and poisoning his
    or her future, through acquiring bad karma.

    Of course, it takes many years before some Zen practitioners are able to
    accept the notion of karmic retribution. Besides, karma serves more as a
    deterrent to wrong action than an encouragement for ecologically
    responsible behavior. How, then, does the novice Zen practitioner who lacks
    the motivating experience of enlightenment cultivate a reverential attitude
    toward the earth and all its inhabitants?

    At first, the primary means of acquiring ecological awareness is education
    and example. Novices are taught, for instance, that water must not be
    wasted, but conserved. At retreats and other times teachers remind them not
    to let the water run when brushing teeth. Likewise, during a shower they
    must turn off the water when soaping the body and washing hair. Similarly,
    the kitchen supervisor cautions them not to leave the water running when
    washing vegetables or dishes.

    Avoiding waste is not limited to water. The novice learns to use and reuse
    every scrap of paper, then recycle it. Much of the paper used for
    letterhead and other purposes, in fact, may already be from recycled stock.
    Garbage that can be recycled is separated and taken to a recycling center.
    Bits of vegetables that the cook cannot use become soup stock or compost.

    Food is never wasted. At meals the novice learns to wipe every morsel of
    food from the plate with bread, pickles, or carrot sticks. Prayers before
    meals remind the Zen practitioner that food should be eaten in the spirit
    of an offering from those who produced it.

    Zen Buddhist trainees are taught to protect the environment. Cleaning
    supplies are ecologically safe. (They might not work as fast, but that
    doesn't matter. You use more elbow grease.) Aerosol sprays are unheard of
    at many Zen centers. Lights are turned off when no longer needed.

    Trainees are taught to treat all creatures of the earth with compassion.
    Plants, also having life, are not to be willfully destroyed. At many Zen
    centers flowers are rarely picked for decorative purposes, although they
    may be used for offerings -- for example, in the altar. More often, greens
    for the altars are artificial or dried so that they last indefinitely. The
    altar flowers, too, may be dried, articifial, or perhaps a living,
    flowering plant.

    As a way of giving to the world and not just taking from it, some Zen
    centers plant trees and flowers each year. Many Buddhist groups maintain
    organic gardens. The members of at least one Zen center regularly clean the
    streets and sidewalks in their neighborhood. Other centers have regular
    fast days during which money that would have been spent on food is sent to
    famine relief organizations.

    In the beginning, the novice does these things out of a sense of
    obligation; it is the "right" thing to do, and besides, it is part of Zen
    training. But as the individual develops spiritually, these practices
    become habitual. More than that, they become part of the way one lives. It
    is never a matter of its being too much trouble, or too inconvenient, or
    unnecessary, for example, to recycle the garbage. One does it with the same
    lack of selfconciousness with which one brushes one's teeth. In the end, it
    is a way of life that is an expression of one's spiritual awareness, an
    understanding that has penetrated every aspect of one's life.

    Living in harmony with the earth does not happen over night. It takes many
    years of training and deep spiritual understanding for a person's actions
    to be instinctively universal, rather than self-centered. Recall the story
    of the monk and Zen master recounted earlier. The monk decided to stay with
    the master because he spontaneously chased after the leaf; the master could
    not have done otherwise. His action was as unselfconscious as reaching for
    a lost pillow while sound asleep. The teacher's life was permeated with
    compassion and attentive care for all things, even a leaf of cabbage. He
    knew well that nothing is separate from the universe -- which means, from
    ourselves.

    If you are convinced that, as Zen Master Dogen said, "you and the streams
    and the mountains are one and the same," how could you live the selfish
    existence of one who despoils the environment? When a massive oil spill
    threatens the ocean, could a single wave stand aloof, acting as if it alone
    were unpolluted, or work only to cleanse itself? No, the wave and the ocean
    work as one, for in reality, they are one. What affects the ocean, affects
    the wave. Just so, what affects the universe, affects each of us, since we
    and the universe are not two. Therefore, in a person of wisdom,
    compassionate concern for the world will instinctively arise. The
    expression of this universal compassion is ecology.

    (n1) Zen Master Dogen, "Keisei Sanshoku" (The Sounds of Valley Streams, the
    Forms of the Mountains), translated by Francis Dolun Cook in How to Raise
    an Ox (Los Angeles: Center Publications, 1978), p. 114.

    (n2) Zen Master Dogen, "Tenzo Kyokun" (Instructions for the Zen Cook),
    translated by Thomas Wright in Refining Your Life (New York: John
    Weatherhill, 1983), p. 6.

    (n3) From the Anguttara-Nikaya II, Samyutta-Nikaya I, quoted by Lama
    Govinda in Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism (New York Samuel Wiser, 1974),
    p. 66.

    (n4) From the Kozen-Gokoku-Ron, quoted in The Three Pillars of Zen, by
    Philip Kapleau (New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1980), p. 126.

    (n5) A being of deep wisdom and compassion who devotes his or her life to
    the liberation of all sentient beings.


     

     【关闭窗口
    相关文章:
  • 禅宗现代转型的发展路向及其启示[205]

  • 禅宗的特色、作略和风格[192]

  • 现代禅学顿渐关系的重构及其取径与概念[230]

  • 刘禹锡的诗与禅[205]

  • 禅宗与中国传统士人思想及其诗歌创作的互动[278]

  • 学佛修行必知的三大基础[209]

  • 只会烧香拜佛?No!佛门环保方式你知多少?[370]

  • 为什么在佛教的众多流派中,禅宗能一枝独秀?[493]

  • 从《坛经》看禅宗的智慧[553]

  • 禅宗最后立宗的法眼宗 它的教禅圆融观有何特点?[700]

  • 禅宗“打禅七”与净土宗“打佛七”的异同[853]

  • 王阳明的思想与禅宗有什么关系[908]

  • 六祖惠能大师诞辰纪念日:一花开五叶,结果自然成[886]

  • 禅宗“不立文字”的因缘探析[628]

  • 佛门“扫地僧”,绝世本领哪里来?[612]

  • 网络热词“呵呵”竟是佛教用语![972]

  • 达摩祖师诞辰 一起学习祖师留下的最重要四句偈[876]

  • 一句话阐明禅宗要旨,这里面说了什么?[989]

  • 从庄子到禅宗对中国人生哲学的建构[880]

  • 禅宗对佛教中国化的影响[1189]

  •  
    设为首页 | 加入收藏 | 联系站长 | 友情链接 | 版权申明 | 管理登录 | 
    版权所有 Copyright© 2005 佛学研究        站长:wuys
    Powered by:Great Tang Hua Wei & XaWebs.com 2.0(2006)