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    The Identification of Kalinganagara
     
    [ 作者: Bhavaraj V. Krishnarao   来自:期刊原文   已阅:3655   时间:2007-1-10   录入:douyuebo


    ·期刊原文
    The Identification of Kalinganagara

    By Bhavaraj V. Krishnarao, B.A., B.L. Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society Vol.15, pp. 105-115

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                               p. 105
         There is a considerable difference of opinion today among
    the scholars over the identification of Kalinganagara, the reputed
    capital of Kalingadesa. Almost all the copper-plate grants
    of the Ganga kings of Kalinga were issued from their capital,
    Kalinganagara. Those who have identified the city with the       
    modern town of Kalingapatam have mainly based their       
    argument on three grounds. They are (1) the reference to the       
    Kalinga rajadhani in Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa as being situated       
    very near to the sea, (2) the similarity of the two names and,       
    lastly (3) Kalingapatam's ancient glory as a seaport and its       
    commercial prosperity from the earliest times. A close examination       
     of these reasons will doubtless show that their identification       
     is utterly untenable. The date of Kalidasa is still       
    a matter of doubt and uncertainty and Kalinga-rajadhani of his       
    day must therefore remain still a matter of conjecture. Except       
    its nearness to the sea, Kalingapatam has no traces of antiquity,       
    of a nature which could suggest the fact of its having been       
    once the capital of Kalinga. It might be after all that       
    Kalidasa by a stretch of his poetic imagination brought the       
    sea nearer the city than it really was. Further the similarity       
    of the names alone is not a sufficient reason to  enable us       
    to identify one city with the other; Kalingapatam could never       
    have been the ancient Kalinganagara. It is a matter of common       
    knowledge with the students of South Indian History that the       
    appellation pattana was always associated with the seaport towns,       
    while nagara was with the capital cities or rajadhanis of the       
    kings. Thus we have for instance, in South India several       
    seaport towns the names of which end with the appellation       
    Pattana like Kayalapattana, Kaveripattana, Nagapattana, Kottapattana,       
     Desyuyukkondapattana. (another name for Motupalli,)       
                               p. 106       
    Machilipattana, (Masulipatam) Visakhapattana, (Vizagapatam)       
    and lastly Kalingapattana, while we have not even a single       
    town, the name of which ends with the appellation nagara       
    on the sea coast. The fact that Kalingapatam was once a       
    flourishing port does not necessarily mean that it must have been       
    also the ancient Kalinganagara. All the extant Telugu Verses       
    quoted in support of the Kalingapatam theory are of recent       
    production and could never have been composed by the celebrated       
    poet Vemulavada Bhimakavi, who lived in the eleventh or       
    twelfth century of the Christian era. The verses, the authorship       
     of which has been gratuitously attributed to Bhimakavi       
    contain references to the English, Dutch and French factories       
    in Kalingapatam and incidentally mention that the town was       
    built upon an island celled Srngala-dvipa. The reference to       
    the European trading companies puts beyond doubt the composition       
     of the verses at sometime in the latter part of the seventeenth       
     century. The island of Srngala with the beautiful town       
    on it, is not to be seen today; it is said to have been swallowed       
    up by the sea sometime ago during the nineteenth century.       
    It is certain, therefore, that Kalingapatam was known only as       
    Kalingapattana even as far back as the sixteenth century and       
    not as Kalinganagara. The former was probably the seaport       
    and the latter, the capital of ancient Kalinga; and both could       
    never have been one and the same.       
       We have however, references to 'Kalinganagara' the capital       
    of the earlier Ganga dynasty in the inscriptions. But as we are       
    not sure of the relations between the early Ganga dynasty and       
    the later Gangas and consequently whether their two Kalinganagaras       
     are one and the same. Until the riddle of the Ganga       
    Chronology is solved the identity of the Kalinganagra of the       
    early Gangas must remain a matter of doubt. In the Srikakulam       
     inscription of king Indravarman(1) of the early Ganga       
    dynasty, Kalinganagara is described thus :- "Svasti jaladhitaranga       
     -kara -pallav-alingitu  sakala-Kalingavanitala-tilakaya-       
    mana- dvij=aya= Kalinganagarat." This passage suggests no       
    1. Ind. Ant, Vol. XII, p. 123.       
                               p. 107       
    doubt that Kalinganagara was on the sea coast but as has been       
    remarked it is not possible to identify it with any known       
    place. But we may ask, is this the city that was described       
    by Kalidasa?       
       Let us see then whether we have any evidence to  identify       
    Kalinganagara of the later Gangas with any known place in       
    Kalingadesa, i.e., the modern districts of Ganjam and Vizagapatam.       
     There has been a tradition current in Kalinga that the       
    villages of Mukhalingam and Nagarakatakam on the Vamsadhara       
    river, in the Parlakimedi taluk, Ganjam district once formed       
    the ancient city of Kalinganagara. It was Rao Sahib       
    G.V. Ramamurti Pantulu who first identified the two villages       
    with Kalinganagara on very substantial grounds.(1) But his       
    identification has not unfortunately been accepted as conclusive.       
    Nevertheless new evidence that has since come to light has       
    placed his identification beyond all doubt.       
       All examination of the inscriptions found in the temples       
    reveals to us certain facts that give us the clue to identify        
    Kalinganagara with certainty. There are three temples dedicated       
    to S'iva in Mukhalingam, under the names of Madhukesvara,       
    Aniyanka-Bhimesvara and Somesvara. The linga which       
    is called Mukhalingesvara appears, however, to have been never       
    known as such; it was always called Madhukesvara. Equally       
    surprising is the fact that though at the present day the village       
    is called  Mukhalingam, the name too, does not appear in the       
    inscriptions found in the temples. The locality in which the       
    temples of Madhukesvara and Aniyanka- Bhimesvara stand is       
    called Nagaramu,(2) Nakaramu,(3) Nagara,(4) or Nagaranavidu(5) in       
    the inscriptions that range over a period of five to six centuries       
    beginning from the ninth  century A.D. Nagara is a       
    Sanskrit word borrowed into Telugu, and sometimes pronounced       
    1. Ep Ind. Vol. IV: pp. 181-189.       
    2. S.I. I. Vol. V. nos. 1007 and 1025.       
    3. Ibid, nos. 1025, 1034, 1040 and 1046.1046.       
    4. Ibid. nos. 1042 and 1057.       
    5. Ibid nos. 1142 and 1046.       
                               p. 108       
     as nakara also and means the capital or the residence of the       
    king (rajadhani). Vidu is a Pure Telugu word meaning       
    a house, abode, dwelling place, citadel or the city itself, usually       
    where the king resides. Nagarana- Vidu, which is a compound       
    words means vidu of the city or vidu in the city. Evidently       
    vidu is here referred to as a proper word signifying the name       
    by which that part of the city where the temples stand, was called       
    in those days. This would then lead us to locate the Nagara       
    itself, which in all certainty must have surrounded the Vidu.       
    Again, at the present day there is a small village called       
    Nagarakatakam within a mile or two to the south from Mukhalingam       
    which further suggests to us the identity of Kalinganagara.       
    Ruins of temples and other buildings all over Mukhalingam       
    and beyond to the south, as far as Nagarakatakam and large       
    inscribed slabs and stones found here and there, confirm also       
    the suggestion of identity. The name Nagarakatakam is        
    apparently a compound of two words, viz., nagara and katakam, each       
    of them having distinctly different meanings. Kataka which       
    appears to be the prakrit form of Sanskrit Khetaka conveys the       
    idea of the city proper where the populace lived. It was       
    associated with several capital cities of the Deccan and we have       
    for  instance, Kataka or kalyana-Kataka, Dhanya-Kataka,       
    ManyaKhetaka (Malkhed) and so on. But the origin of the       
    name Nagarakatakam might be twofold. The fact that the       
    capital of the neighbouring kingdom of Orissa was popularly        
    called mere  Kataka like the capital of the Western Chalukyas(7)       
    might probably have induced the people of Kalinga to call their       
    rajadhani with an appellation "Naqara", or it might be that       
    the name "Nagarakatakam" meant the Kataka or the city       
    proper (where the populace lived) of NAGARA, the capital of the       
    Ganga kings of Kalinga, just as it was said of the Vidu of       
    Nagara as Nagarana=Vidu.       
       Again, Nagara might be an abbreviation of Kalinganagara,       
    for we have innumerable instances of the city having been       
    -----------------------------       
    1. The capital of the Western Chalukyas was known as Kalyanskataka but       
    popularly called mere Kataka.       
                               p. 109       
    called as such. God Madhukesvara is referred to in a number       
    of inscriptions found in the temple itself in the following       
    manner:-- "Kalingavani- Nagare Sriman Madhukesvaraya       
    Sarvaya,(1) Kalinga-desa-Nagare Sriman Madhukesvaraya devaya(2)       
    Trikalingavani- Nagare Sriman  Madhukesvaraya,(3) Nagare-       
    Kalingadese Svayambhuve Madhukesvaraya"(4) and I stly "Nagare-       
    Madhukesvarayam,"(5) which are suggestive of the meaning that       
    the city was called Nagara of Kalinga or Kalinganagara or       
    Nagara itself. Thus, curiously however, that while Katakam       
    of Nagara is still called Nagarakatakam the Vidu of Nagara       
    ceased to be known as such and a new name Mukhalingam       
    has usurped its place. This is indeed interesting and I think it       
    may not be out of place here to enquire into the origin of this       
    new name. The name of the linga Madhukesvara becomes       
    Mohakesvara in prakrit, and Moha and Madhuka mean the       
    same mauha tree. The name Mohalingam has in course of       
    time become corrupted into Mukhalingam on account of the       
    Telugu Brahmanas who ignorant of the original meaning       
    explained the word in the Kshetramahatmya as a compound       
    of two words, Mukha and Linga, i.e., linga with face.(6) Thus       
    in course of time Mukhalingam, the name of the deity lent       
    itself to the village also and people gradually forgot the names       
    of Nagara and Vidu.       
       There is yet another piece of evidence in support of view, viz.       
    that Mukhalingam and Nagarakatakam represent the ancient       
    city of Kalinganagara. The Vizagapatam copper-plate inscription       
     of Anantavarman dated S.S. 1040 records three facts which       
    bear on this question.(7) They are as follows:-- (1) Kamarnava       
    I one of the ancestors of the king had for his capital the       
    -----------------------------       
    1. S.I.I., Vol. V., no, 1035.       
    2. Ibid., no. 1036.       
    3. Ibid., no. 1101.       
    4. Ibid., no. 1098.       
    5. Ibid., nos. 1042 and 1057.       
    6. Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, pp. 188-189, Sanskrit Mukhha becomes Moha in       
       Telugu or Andhraprakrit.       
    7. Ind. Ant., Vol. XVIII, pp. 167-168, lines 49-50 and 60-63.       
                               p. 110       
    town named Dantavura which excelled all the cities of all the       
    kings and even the city of Surendra. (2) Kamarnava II, nephew       
    of Kamarnava I, had for his capital the city named Nagara that       
    surpassed Trivistapa, the city of gods, in beauty; and (3)       
    in that city Nagara, Kamarnava II had built a lofty temple for       
    the emblem of God 1sa (Siva) in the form of Linga to which he       
    gave the name of Madhukesa because it came out of a madhuka       
    tree.       
       Now let us examine these facts carefully. The first of these       
    is that Kamaranava I, the reputed founder of the Ganga dynasty       
    originally had for his rajadhani a town called Jantavuram       
    which seems to be mistake for Dantavuram; Dr. Fleet clearly       
    had misread the letter ja for da. Mr. Ramamurti Pantulu       
    accepting the word as Jantavaram mistook Jantavurum for       
    Jayantipuram which is mentioned in the Khsetramanatmya.(1)       
    The name Jantavunram could not he a mistake for Jayantipuram.       
    It is impossible for the engraver to commit such a grave error       
    in respect of a city which was well known to him as the       
    residence of the former kings of Kalinga and which was       
    certainly in existence at that time.(2) Besides the fact that       
    Kamarnava II, nephew of Kamarnava I had for his capital       
    another town named Nagara where he is said to have built       
    a  temple for Madhukesvara shows that Jantavuram and       
    Jayantipuram could not be identical with one another as       
    suggested by Mr. Ramamurti Pantulu, Further the identification       
     seems to be unsound and even untenable on both philological       
     and phonetical grounds. In the Korni Copper-plate       
    inscription of Anantavariman dated S.S. 1034 edited by       
    Mr. G.V. Sitapati, these facts are repeated.(3) But the       
    editor did not, like Dr. Fleet, misread the name of the city as       
    -----------------------------       
    1. Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, pp. 188-ff.       
    2. S.I.I., Vol.V, nos. 1076 and 1084. The inscriptions in which Dantavuram       
       is mentioned belong to the reign of Anantavarman, 1078-1148, A.D., as       
       they are dated in S.S. 1027 (A.D. 1105) and S.S. 1035 (A.D. 1113) respectively.       
    3. Q.J.A.H.R.S., Vol. I, pp. 107-123.       
                               p. 111       
    Jantavuram; it is correctly read as Dantavuram(1). That the       
    name of the city is beyond all doubt Dantavuram is also borne       
    out by other epigraphical evidence available.(2) In the inscrip-       
    tions found in Mukhalingam, we come across the name       
    Dantavuram, and in one of them a grant of land in Dantavur-       
    am was also made to the shrine of Madhukesvara in Nagara.       
    Then the second fact that Kamarnava II, had built a new       
    city named Nagara and changed his residence to that place.       
    Anantvarman, however, does not give us any reasons for this       
    change of the capital by Kamarnava II. This 'Nagara' is       
    said to have been built on the bank of the river Vamsadhara.       
    There is a local tradition now extant in the neighbourhood of       
    Mukhalingam which however assigns a reason for the change       
    of the capital from Dantavuram to the newly built town       
    Nagara on the bank of Vamsadhara, which appears to be       
    probable, nay even true for it fully corroborates and explains       
    the facts stated in the inscriptions, of Anantavarman. It is       
    said that a king ruling in Dantavuram who was a devout       
    worshipper of Siva had once developed bitter hatred towards       
    the Baudhdhas who were living in a large monastery in his city.       
    And acting on the evil advice of his wicked ministers he wanted       
    to drive them out of his capital but having failed in that       
    attempt he planned their destruction secretly. Accordingly one       
    day he invited all the Bauddhas to a grand feast in his       
    palace; and as each guest arrived in he caused him to be       
    forcibly carried away by his men who hid themselves behind the       
    doors, insulted, tortured and finally did away with them quietly.       
    In a short time the news of this cruelty and torture spread in       
    the city like wild fire and the panic stricken Bauddhas cursed       
    the king and his city and fled from the monastery for their       
    lives. When the news  of  the  curse  reached the king,  he       
    trembled, deserted his capital and fled into the forests, where       
    -----------------------------       
       1. Though the facsimile of the Vizagapatam Copper-plate inscription was       
    not published in the Indian Antiquary. I have made myself sure of the reading       
    of the name Dantavuram by looking at the original plates. In the Korni grant       
    the letter da in Dantavuram is very clear.       
       2. S. I. I., Vol. V, nos. 1076 and 1084.       
                               p. 112       
    he built a new rajadhani on the northern bank or the river       
    Vamsadhara. Since that/time Dantavuram ceased to be the       
    capital and gradually the people, too, deserted it. The curse       
    of the innocent Buddhist monks caused so much affliction to       
    the city, its king and his people, that the city in course of time       
    fell into ruins and was afterwards never again fully       
    repopulated.(1) People of Amudalavalasa and the neighbourhood       
    near Chicacole Road railway station point out to a site which       
    is within two miles from the railway station and  where  stands       
    to this day a huge earthen wall about a mile in length and       
    a large opening into it in the middle which is said to be the        
    place where stood once the main gateway or the simhadvara       
    into the fort and call the place Dantavuram or Dantavaktrunikota.       
     They however, ignorantly associate  the  place  with  the       
    demon-king, Dantavaktra, brother of Sisupala, lord of Chedidesa       
     and the rival of Sri Krsna for the hand of Rukmini.       
       It may not be out of place to discuss here about the       
    identification of Dantapura, the reputed capital of ancient Kalinga.       
    The close similarity between Dantavuram and Dantapura of       
    the Buddhist chronicles induces me to identify Dantavuram       
    with Dantapura. This identification is also corroborated by       
    the writings of the ancient Roman geographer, Pliny who       
    mentions about the Calingoe in his Natural History.(2)       
    According to him the territory of the Calingoe extended as       
    far as the promontory of Calingon and the town of Dandaguda       
    or Dandagula,(3) which is said to be the capital of ancient       
    Kalinga is situated at a distance of 625 Roman Miles or 524       
    1. Watters:-- Travels of Yuwan Chwang., Vol. II, p. 198. Yuwan Chwang       
       tells us of a similar story in connection with Kalinga when he visited the       
       country in Circa 640 A.D. "This country (Kalinga)," the pilgrim relates, "had       
       once been very densely inhabited; a holy rishi possessing supernatural powers had       
       his hermitage in it; he was once offended by a native and cursed the country;       
       as a consequence of this curse became, and remained utterly unpopulated. In the       
       lapse of many years since that event it had become gradually inhabited again,       
       but it still had only a scanty population ... .....       
    2. Hist. Nat.,VI. 21.''Gentes; Calingoe proximo mari supra Mandei,       
       quorum mons Mallus, finisque ejus tractus eat Ganges."       
    3. Ibid. VI. 23. Philemon Bolland's translation has Dandagula.       
                               p. 113       
    English miles from the mouth of the Ganges. Calingon is       
    said to have been situated at the mouth of a great river which       
    Cunningham takes to be the Godavari on account of the       
    great  similarity he finds between Calingon and the great       
    seaport town of Coringa (Tel. Korangi,) which is situated       
    on a projection of land at the mouth of the Godavari.(1)       
    The town of Dandaguda or Dandagula is, according to       
    Cunningham, the Dantapura of the Buddhist Chronicles.(2) And       
    he identifies Dantapura with Rajamahendri (Rajahmahendravaram)       
     on the eastern bank of Godavari which is within forty       
    miles from Coringa to the south west. Pliny seems to suggest       
    that Calingon and Dandaguda were situated very near to each       
    other. And this fact led the late Sir A. Cunningham to assume       
    that Calingon and Dandaguda of Pliny were the same as the       
    well known towns of Coringa and Rajahmahendri, respectively.(3)       
     But this identification seems to be incorrect.       
    Calingon has certainly more similarity to Kalinga or Kalingapatam       
     and likewise Dandaguda to Dantavura, than to any other       
    names known to us. Besides these towns are said to have       
    been situated in Calingoe, a territory which has been long ago       
    identified with Kalinga. We may therefore assume with much       
    probability that Calingon represents the modern town of       
    Kalingapatam as it was said to be on the projection of land       
    at the mouth of a 'large river' which might be taken to be       
    the river Vamsadhara, and Dandaguda, the ancient capital of       
    Kalinga, Dantavura or Dantapura.(4) Perhaps it was this city       
    1. Cunnningham's Ancient Geography of India, pp. 592-593, Edited by       
       S.N. Mazumdar :       
    2. Ibid.       
    3. Ibid.       
    4. Even today the site on which Dantavuram once said to have stood is not       
       very far from the river Vamsadhara. It might be that at one time the river       
       flowed near the city, three miles in a southwardly direction; for is a well       
       known fact that rivers gradually change their courses. The distance between       
       Dantavuram or Dantapura and Calingon or Kalingapatam which is at the mouth       
       of the river is about sixteen or twenty miles. Calingon and Dandaguda were       
       therefore cities of Kalinga and if Pliny could not give the name of the river       
       Vamsadhara it might be that his informant forgot or omitted its name because it       
       was not probably considered as important a river as the Godavari or the Krishna.       
                               p. 114       
    on the coast that Kalidasa mentioned and king Indravarman       
    described as being "tickled by the bands of waves of the ocean."       
       And now coming back to the tradition, I do not propose to       
    enter into a discussion of its details and also of the facts       
    referred to in the inscriptions of Anantavarman. It is not       
    necessary for our purpose to know which prince lived in       
    Dantavuram and which king changed his capital to Nagara on       
    the banks of the river Vamsadhara. Nor are we concerned       
    about the reasons that prompted the king whoever he might       
    be to shift his residence from Dantavuram to Nagara. There       
    are the facts of the change of the capital and the building of       
    a new rajadhani and the construction of the temple to       
    Madhukesa recorded in the inscriptions of Anantavarman, who       
    must be taken to have mentioned them  as very important facts       
    concerning his capital and his ancestors as they were current       
    in his time. And now they are corroborated by the tradition.       
    Further, there stands to this day the temple of Madhukesvara       
    in Nagara which is no other than Mukhalingam itself. And       
    nowhere else in Kalinga there is another temple for Isa under       
    the name of Madhnkesvara. The name of Dantavuram, too, is       
    mentioned in the inscriptions of Mukhalingam. In the light       
    of these facts it is idle to contend any longer that Mukhalingam       
    and Nagarakatakam do not represent the ancient Kalinganagara.       
       There is yet one more piece of evidence that places the       
    identification on unshakeable ground. There is an inscription       
    in the temple of Mukhalingesvara which records a grant to the       
    dancers and musicians of the god Madhukesvara (called       
    Trikalingdeva here) issued from the 'Victorious Kalinganagara'       
    itself, by Anantavarman.(1) The inscription which is not       
    -----------------------------       
    1. S.I.I., Vol. V, no.1010.  The inscription runs thus:--       
                               p. 115       
    however, dated, is in Sanskrit prose and engraved in the North       
    Indian Nagari characters on a, pillar to the right of the       
    entrance into the central shrine of Mukhalingesvara. It begins       
    with the usual words, "Svasti! Srimat Kalinganagarat! etc."       
    meaning, "Hail! From the victorious Kalinganagara."       
    Thus when there is a record concerning the dancers and       
    musicians of the temple of Madhukesvara in Kalinganagara,       
    issued from and inscribed in a prominent place in the temple       
    itself, in Kalinganagara, what stronger proof is required to       
    identify Mukhalingam and Nagarakatakam with the ancient       
    Kalinganagara?       
       From an examination of all these facts and by the ruins       
    that lie scattered between the two villages I am inclined to       
    believe that the site covered by the two villages, Nagarakatakam       
    and Mukhalingam represents the ancient Kalinganagara. Of the       
    beautiful palaces of its former kings, buildings and other       
    monumental works that once adorned the grand capital city of       
    Kalinga on account of the munificience and devotion of its noble       
    kings, three temples alone remain to-day recalling even faintly       
    the former glory of the city.(1) Everywhere in the vicinity       
    of these temples and the villages one comes actress within an       
    inch or two of digging the upper layer of the earth massive       
    structures in brick which remind us of the existence formerly       
    of beautiful edifices. Surrounded by these ruins at the present       
    day these three temples of Siva ruined and half-ruined as they       
    are still serve to attest the former magnificience of the ancient       
    city of Kalinganagara.       
    -----------------------------       
    1. A temple of Visnu is mentioned in  the inscriptions of Mukhalingam. It       
       is said to have stood in the Nagarapu-vadai probably at the other end of the       
       street. See S. II., Vol. V, no. 1049.       
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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