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    The Parables of Barlaam and Joasaph
     
    [ 作者: Robert Chalmers   来自:期刊原文   已阅:4870   时间:2007-1-10   录入:douyuebo


    ·期刊原文
    The Parables of Barlaam and Joasaph

    Robert Chalmers
    The Journal Of The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain And Ireland
    1891
    pp.423-449


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    .

     

                                    p.423

                                    I.

            THOUGH  declining  to  pronounce  on the  origin  and
            history of the fables of "Barlaam  and Joasaph" until
            the Buddhist  Jatakas  have been translated  from the
            Pali, M. Zotenberg has been at pains to collect these
            fables and to edit them with a revised  Greek text as
            an appendix to his "Notice sur le livre de Barlaam et
            Joasaph" (Paris, 1886).  A translation of his text is
            here given;  and for the convenience  of students  of
            comparative folk-lore,(1) I have added a translation,
            from  Boissonade's  text  in  " Anecdota  Graeca," of
            further passages bearing on the life of Joasaph.  The
            passages  in  square  brackets  [  ] are  those  from
            Boissonade;  the numbers at the head of the remaining
            sections corresponding to the numbers of the sections
            of M. Zotenberg's text.
                As regards  date and authorship  of the book, the
            conclusions  of M.  Zotenberg  are  that  it was  not
            written by St. John of Jerusalem, but (as most of the
            ancient  manuscripts  state) "a ‚t‚  apport‚ dans  la
            ville sainte (i.e. Jerusalem) par un moine du convent
            de St.  Saba nomm‚ Jean." As the monastery founded by
            St.  Euthymus  was only restored  in A.D.  491 by St.
            Saba, and as no mention of Mahomedanism occurs in the
            category  of  faiths  mentioned   by  the  author  of
            "Barlaam  and Joasaph," the date  of the book must be
            either  the  sixth  or the beginning  of the  seventh
            century A.D. On doctrinal and other internal evidence
            the date is probably about.A.D. 630.
            _____________________________________________________

            (1) See the translation of an Arabic version  in this
                Journal, January, 1890.


                                    p.424

                As regards the origin and history  of the book, I
            venture  to think that it is the life of Joasaph  (or
            "Bodisat ") which is the important  matter, even more
            than the interpolated  fables.  In a further  paper I
            propose to consider  the life of Joasaph in the light
            of the several  accounts  of the life  of the Buddha,
            and to trace the early history of the fables.


                [Now when monasteries  commenced  to spring up in
            Egypt  and monks  to assemble  in great  numbers, and
            when  the report  of their  virtue  and angelic  life
            began to spread  to the ends of the earth and came to
            the Indians, it aroused  these  latter  also  to like
            zeal, so that many of them, leaving  all, took to the
            wilderness, and, whilst still of mortal mould, showed
            forth the state of angels.
                Whilst matters fared thus well, and numbers  were
            winging  their way to heaven  on golden wings (as the
            saying  is), there  arose  a king  in that same land,
            Abenner  by name, who grew great in wealth  and power
            and in victory over his adversaries, and won glory in
            war, and was proud of his great stature and beauty of
            features, revelling  in the marvels  that are of this
            world and will fade all too quickly.  But great  king
            as he was, he was oppressed in his soul by the direst
            poverty.and  vexed  by many evils, being of the Greek
            (i.e.  pagan) faction  and  abject  in the  error  of
            idolworship.  Now though he lived in great luxury and
            enjoyment  of the joys  and pleasures  of life, never
            being  thwarted  in any  of his wishes  and  desires,
            there was one thing in which his gladness  was marred
            and  his  soul   filled   with   cares,  namely,  the
            misfortune  of being  childless.  For  being  without
            offspring, he was moat anxious to be free from such a
            limitation, and  to be called  a father  of  children
            --an end which most men compass very readily.]

                                    p.425


                  1. OF ANGER AND DESIRE,

                Hearing  this, that man of God(1) made suave  but
            steadfast  reply, as  follows: "If, sire, it  be your
            wish  to confer  with me, first  remove  your enemies
            from   your  court,  and  then  I  will  make  answer
            concerning  whatsoever  you may seek  to learn.  For,
            whilst those enemies  are by your side, I have naught
            to say  to your  majesty.  Saying  naught, let  me be
            punished, put to death, and dealt  with  as you will,
            For unto  me,' says  my Master, 'the  world  has been
            crucified, and I unto the world.'  "(2) Then when the
            King  asked  who these  enemies  were whom  he was to
            remove, the man of God answered, " Anger  and Desire.
            For as these were originally implanted by the Creator
            to abet  the natural  man, even such is their  action
            now too, in the case  of all that  are  governed  not
            according  to the Flesh but according  to the Spirit.
            To all such of you as are wholly  Flesh and share not
            in   the   Spirit,  they   have   proved   themselves
            adversaries, and labour  in the cause of your enemies
            and foes.  For Desire, as it excites pleasure when in
            activity, so it excites  Anger when ungratified.  and
            inactive.  Let these  two, therefore, be put from you
            this day;  and let Understanding  and Justice preside
            at the tribunal, to hear  and  to judge  this  cause.
            For, if you will lay aside Anger and Desire, and will
            substitute for them Understanding and Justice, I will
            tell you everything as truth dictates."
                [Now, when  the  ex-Satrap  had  departed  to the
            wilderness again, the King being still more incensed,
            set  about  a  fiercer  persecution  of  monasticism,
            whilst  he paid greater  honour to the ministers  and
            priests of the idols. And whilst the King was in this
            fearful  error and delusion, a son was born to him, a
            child  of great  loveliness, whose  infantine  beauty
            foreshadowed  the future  man.  For it was said  that
            never in that country  had one been seen so extremely
            handsome
            _____________________________________________________

            (1) He  had  been   the  Chief   Satrap,  who,  being
                converted  to Christianity, had  retired  to be a
                monk in the wilderness, from which he was brought
                back by the king's command.

            (2) Galatians vi. 14.


                                    p.426

            and beautiful.  Filled  with  very  great  joy at the
            birth  of his son, the  King  named  him Joasaph, and
            went  in  person  to  the  idols'   temples   to  pay
            sacrifices, in his senseless folly, to gods even more
            senseless, and  to offer  up hymns  of  thanksgiving,
            knowing not who is the Giver of all good things, unto
            Whom should be offered the sacrifice of the spirit.
                Whilst  the festivities  over  the child's  birth
            were still in progress, they brought to the King some
            five-and-fifty    chosen   men,   learned    in   the
            astrological  knowledge  of the  Chaldeans.  And  the
            King, placing  them very close  to himself, proceeded
            to ask them to declare each of them what would be the
            destiny   of  the  son  born  to  him.   After  much:
            consideration  they answered  that he would be great,
            both  in riches  and  in power, and  was destined  to
            surpass  all the   kings before  him.  But one of the
            astrologers, the  most  distinguished  of  them  all,
            said, "From  what the courses  of the stars  tell me,
            Sire, the advancement  of the child  now born  to you
            belongs not to this kingdom  of yours, but to another
            kingdom infinitely  superior.  And I consider that he
            will embrace the religion of the Christians  whom you
            are persecuting, nor do I for my part  think  that he
            will be foiled  of his aim and hope."  Thus spake the
            astrologer, as  of  old  spake  Baalam;  not  because
            astrology  speaks  true, but because  God was showing
            the  truth  by its opposite, so as to rob the ungodly
            of every excuse.]


                  2. How JOASAPH WAS GUARDED.

                When he heard  this, the King was sore distressed
            at the news;  and sorrow  began  to abate  his wonted
            gladness.  Nevertheless, in a quiet retired  town, he
            built  a palace  of great  beauty, with fair chambers
            richly  decorated, wherein  he set his  son to dwell.
            Further, the King ordered  that the prince was not to
            set  foot  outside  the  palace  after  his  earliest
            childhood.  The  tutors  and servants  whom  the King
            appointed were all young and very handsome, and their
            mandate  from the King was not to allow the prince to
            see  any  of  the  loathly  sights  of life, such  as
            old-age,


                                    p.427

            disease, poverty, and all other sad shows which might
            abate  the prince's  gladness.  Instead, they were to
            present   to  his  view  all  things   pleasant   and
            delightful, in order  that his mind, taking  pleasure
            and revelling  therein, might  have no force  left to
            speculate  on the  future, and  that  not  a syllable
            about Christ  and His creed should  reach the ears of
            the prince.  For, beyond everything  else, it was the
            King's peculiar anxiety to keep Christianity a secret
            from  his  son, because  of his secret  dread  of the
            astrologer's prophecy.
                If any of the attendants chanced to fall ill, the
            King  used  to order  him  to  be  removed  from  the
            precincts  at once, and replaced  him by one who  was
            quite  healthy  and well, ¢wall to prevent  his son
            from seeing any strange and startling sight.

                  3.  THE THREE MEETINGS.

                Now the king's  son, about whom our story set out
            originally  to speak, grew  up to adolescence  within
            the palace  prepared  for him, without  ever  setting
            foot outside. He had gone through all the learning of
            the  AEthiopians  and  Persians, and in soul  no less
            than in body showed perfection  and beauty, sense and
            understanding, and  a brilliant  array  of  all  good
            endowments.  So profound were the questions' touching
            Nature which he propounded  to his teachers that they
            were astounded  at the boy's subtlety and wit, whilst
            the king, too, marvelled  both  at the loveliness  of
            his face and the beautiful nature of his soul within.
            And the King  continued  to charge  those  about  the
            prince  not to let  him  come  to have  the slightest
            inkling of the loathly  things of life or of the doom
            of all our delights to give place to death.  But vain
            were the hopes on which he leaned--essaying  to shoot
            at, the  heavens, as the  proverb  has  it.  For  how
            could.  the idea of death have possibly  eluded human
            nature? At any rate, it did not elude this young boy.
            For he, bringing  all his intelligence  to bear  upon
            the question, set himself to consider  privately  the
            reasons why the King refused to let him ever set foot
            outside the palace, and did not admit


                                    p.428

            all  who wished  to have  access  to his  son, For of
            himself  the prince  knew  that  all this  was by the
            King's command.  Yet he did not like to ask the King,
            holding that it was impossible  that his father aimed
            at anything  but his son's welfare, and arguing that,
            if this  were  his father's  design, questioning  him
            would  fail  to elicit  the truth.  Hence  the prince
            resolved  to get his knowledge  not from  his father,
            but from others. Now one of his tutors was nearer and
            dearer  to him than all the rest, being treated  with
            closer  intimacy   and  honoured   with  more  costly
            presents;  and  from  this  man the prince  set about
            enquiring what was the King's object in mewing him up
            within those walls.  '' Explain this to me," said he,
            "and you shall be my favourite beyond all others, and
            I  will  make  a  league   with  you  of  everlasting
            friendship."  Now  the tutor, who was himself, too, a
            man of sense, and knew  the intelligence  and perfect
            understanding  of the  boy, and was assured  that  he
            would  be exposed  to no peril  by his young  charge,
            related the whole story to him from beginning to end,
            telling the prince of the persecution  which the King
            had  waged  against  the Christians, and particularly
            against the ascetics and how they had been driven out
            and expelled  from that country, and what  prophecies
            had been uttered  by the astrologers  when the prince
            was born.  "In  order, therefore," said  the tutor, "
            that you might not hear their  teachings  and come to
            prefer  their religion  to ours, the King was careful
            that your associates  should not be many but definite
            in number, and he gave us commands  not to let any of
            the loathly things of life come to your knowledge."
                Having  heard  this, the youth forebore  to speak
            further;  but his heart  was touched  by the Word  of
            Salvation, and the Grace of the Comforter set to work
            to open the eyes of his mind, leading him by the hand
            to the true God in order  that the Word going  before
            might  reveal  Him.  Very  frequently  the  Ring, his
            father, came to see his son, for he loved him with an
            exceeding  affection;  and  one  day his son said, "I
            wanted  to ask you one thing, my lord  and master, as
            to which grief unending and ceaseless care devours my


                                    p.429

            heart." Filled  with inward  grief at the mere words,
            the King  said, "Tell  me, my darling  son, what  the
            grief is that possesses you, and I will try to change
            it  quickly   into  joy."  The  boy  answered,  "What
            confinement  is  this  of mine  here  that  you  have
            imprisoned  me within walls and gates, and suffer  me
            not to go abroad  or to be seen  publicly?" Said  the
            father,  "I  desire,  my  son, that  you  should  see
            nothing  likely  to sadden  your heart or abate  your
            gladness.  For it is my aim that you should live your
            whole life lapped  in ceaseless  delight  and joy and
            pleasure."  "Oh, but be well assured, sire," answered
            the  boy, "that  this  present  life  of mine  is not
            filled with joy and pleasure to me; nay, rather it is
            filled  with sorrow  and tribulation, so that my very
            meat  and drink  seem distasteful  and bitter.  For I
            yearn to see all that lies outside  these gates.  If,
            then, you wish  me not to live  in pain, give  orders
            that I am to go forth  at my pleasure  and to gladden
            my heart with the sight of what has been invisible to
            me hitherto."  Grief filled the King's  heart when he
            heard this, and he began to ponder how; if he were to
            refuse  his son's request, he would bring  on the boy
            still greater  harm and sorrow, So he made answer, "I
            will  do what  you  desire, my son," and gave  orders
            that a special  chariot  should be at once made ready
            and a king's  escort to attend  it.  Then he directed
            that  the prince  should  be at liberty  to ride  out
            whenever   he  wished,  and  charged   the   prince's
            companions   not  to  confront   him  with   anything
            repulsive, but  to point  out to the  boy  everything
            beautiful and delightful. Companies of minstrels were
            to dance  and sing  in harmonious  unison  along  the
            highways, and  plays  of  great  beauty  were  to  be
            performed, so that his mind might be absorbed therein
            and filled with pleasure. When he was in the frequent
            habit  of going out thus at random  along  the roads,
            the King's son saw one day, through  the carelessness
            of  his  attendants, two  men, of whom  the  one  was
            maimed  and the other  blind.  Seeing  them and being
            pained  at heart by the sight, he said to those  with
            him, " Who are these, and what means their unpleasant
            appearance? " And his attendants, being unable


                                    p.430

            to conceal  what had come  before  his eyes, replied,
            "These are states of human suffering such as are wont
            to assail mortals  as the result of corrupt substance
            and an illhumoured  body."  Said the boy, "Do all men
            alike usually  come to this?" "No;  not all," was the
            answer;  "only those who lose their health because of
            the  malignancy  of their  humours."  So the  boy set
            about  questioning  them  again, saying, "If not all,
            but only  some men come  to this, are the individuals
            known  beforehand  who  will  be  attacked  by  these
            horrors? or  is the  attack  undefined  in scope  and
            unforeseen?" Said they, "Who  among  men can know the
            secrets   of  the  future  and  have  sure  knowledge
            thereof? For  this  is too  great  for  man, and  has
            fallen to the lot of the immortal  gods alone."  Then
            the prince  oeased  from  his questioning, but pained
            was his heart at what he had seen;  and a change came
            over his countenance  because  of the strangeness  of
            the thing.
                Not  many  days  later  as he was  again  passing
            along, he chanced  upon  an aged  man, very  full  of
            gears, wizen in face, tottering in the legs, and bent
            double;  he was white  with age, his teeth were gone,
            and his speech was broken and stammering.  Amazement,
            therefore, seized  the prince, and, bringing  the old
            man near, he began to ask to know the marvel  he saw.
            Then said those  with him, "This  man has now reached
            extreme age;  and as his strength  kept waning little
            by little, and as his limbs.  grew  feeble, he passed
            unawares  into  the wretched  plight  you see."  "And
            what," asked the  boy, "is  the  end  of  this?" said
            they, "The next and only change is death." "Pray tell
            me, does  this fate await  all men alike," asked  the
            prince, " or only  some?" They answered  and said, "
            Unless death anticipate  and bear off a man hence, it
            is impossible, as years  roll on, not to come to have
            experience  of  this  condition."  Said  the  prince,
            "After how many years then does this come upon a man?
            And tell me if death is the doom always, and if there
            is no means of evading  it and also of escaping  this
            misery." They answered, "In eighty or a hundred years
            men glide into this senility, and then


                                    p.431

            die, no alternative  being  given.  For  death  is  a
            natural  debt  laid on mankind  in the beginning, and
            inexorable is death's coming."
                Now, when the clever  and intelligent  youth  had
            seen and heard all this, he said, with groanings from
            the depths  of his heart, "Bitter  is this  life  and
            full of all pain and wretchedness, if this be so. And
            how shall  a man be free  from care  for thinking  of
            unknowable death, whose coming is not only inexorable
            but also  unknowable, and not  to be foretold, as you
            say?" And he went away  turning  all this over in his
            mind,  and   unceasingly   pondering   thereon,  and;
            reminding  himself again and again of death, his life
            being wedded thenceforth  to trouble and despondency,
            and possessed with ceaseless  sorrow.  For he said in
            himself, "shall  I one day fall  a prey to death? And
            who will ' hold me in remembrance after death, seeing
            that time hands over all things to oblivion? And if I
            die, shall  I be dissolved  into  nothingness? or  is
            there  any other  life, and another  and  a different
            world?"


                  4. PARABLE OF THE JEWEL.

                For it chanced  that  at that  time  there  was a
            certain wise monk, who glorified God both in his life
            and  with  his  mouth, and  had  passed  through  all
            monastic  training.  Whence  he  came, and  what  his
            lineage  was, I cannot  say;  but he had taken up his
            abode  in a desert  of the land of Senaar,(1) and had
            become  perfect  in  the  grace  of the  holy  state.
            Barlaam was the name of this old man.
                He then  it was, who, learning  about  the king's
            son  by  a  revelation  from  God, came  out  of  the
            wilderness  to where   men dwelt.  Changing  his  own
            monastic  garb  for a lay  dress, and embarking  on a
            vessel, he came to the kingdom of India.  Then in the
            guise of a merchant he made his way to the city where
            the palace  was  of the king's  son.  After  residing
            there  for  many  days,  he  made  precise  enquiries
            concerning  the  prince  and  the people  about  him.
            Learning,
            _____________________________________________________
            (1) Gen. x. 10; Dan. i. 2.


                                    p.432

            therefore, that beyond all others the aforesaid tutor
            was near  and dear  to the prince, he went to him and
            said  privily, "I would  have  you  to know, my lord,
            that I am a merchant  from  a far country, and that I
            have a precious  stone  the like  of which  has never
            been discovered  before.  Up till now I have shown it
            to no man, but I disclose it to you (whom I see to be
            a man of intelligence  and sense), in order  that you
            may bring  me before  the king's  son and that  I may
            present  it to him.  For, unquestionably, nothing can
            match  it for beauty.  It has power to give the light
            of wisdom  to the blind in heart, to open the ears of
            the deaf, to give speech to the dumb, and strength to
            the sick. The foolish it makes wise, demons it drives
            out, and furnishes  all things  good and fair without
            stint  to its possessor."  Said the tutor  to him, "I
            was taking  you for a man of settled  and solid mind.
            But your words prove you an unmeasured braggart. For,
            as to stones and pearls of great price and value, how
            could  I recount  all I have  seen? Yet  never  did I
            either  see or hear fell of one with such virtues  as
            you say.  Nevertheless, show it me, and if it tallies
            with your  description  I will take  it in at once to
            the prince, and you shall  have  the highest  honours
            and  presents   at  his  hands:  But  before  I  have
            fortified  myself by the sure witness of my own eyes,
            I cannot  carry  this preposterous  report  about  an
            unseen thing to my prince and master."  Barlaam  made
            answer, "Truly  did you say that  you have never  yet
            either seen or heard tell of such powers and virtues.
            For what I tell you relates not to an ordinary thing,
            but to a great marvel. And for that you sought to see
            this stone, hearken to my words.  This precious stone
            possesses  with the aforesaid powers and virtues this
            further quality, namely, that if cannot be seen, even
            when straight before him, by any man who has not both
            strong;  and healthy  vision  and a body  chaste  and
            wholly  undefiled.  For if a man who falls  short  in
            these  two points, gaze unabashed  upon this precious
            stone, of a sooth he shall further lose the vision he
            has and his senses.  Now, I, who am not  unversed  in
            physicians' lore, see that your eyes are not


                                    p.433

            without  blemish, and I fear  to rob you even  of the
            sight you have.  But I have heard that the king's son
            is both chaste of life and endowed  with perfect eyes
            of healthy  vision.  This is why I have not feared to
            show  him this  treasure.  So go not  astray  in this
            matter, and rob not your master of such a treasure."
                To him the tutor  replied, "Well, if this  be the
            case, do not show me the stone.  For my life has been
            defiled  by many sins, and my sight  too, as you say,
            is not sound.  But, being persuaded  by your words, I
            will not shrink from making this known to my lord and
            master."  With  these  words  he went  in and related
            everything point by point to the prince. And when the
            latter  heard  the  tutor's  story, he felt  joy  and
            spiritual gladness breathe in upon his heart, and, as
            though inspired by God, bade the man be brought in at
            once.
                When, therefore, Barlaam came in and gave him due
            salutation  of peace, the prince  allowed  him  to be
            seated. Then when the tutor bad retired, Joasaph said
            to the old man, " Show me the precious stone to which
            my  tutor  tells  me you  attribute  such  great  and
            marvellous   properties."
                So Barlaam  began his discourse  in these  words,
            "It is not right, sire, for me to utter an untrue  or
            ill-considered  word before your Highness'  exceeding
            majesty.  For all that has been  communicated  to you
            from me is true  and beyond  dispute.  Yet, unless  I
            first   make  proof   of  your  understanding,  I  am
            forbidden to reveal the mystery."


                  5. PARABLE OF THE TRUMP OF DEATH.
                  6. PARABLE OF THE FOUR BOXES.

                For there was a great  and glorious  king, and it
            fell  out  that,  as  he  was  riding  along  in  his
            gold-studded  chariot with a royal escort, he met two
            men clad in filthy  rags with pallid, pinched  faces,
            Now the king recognized that they were wasted away by
            reason  of their  contemning  the body and mortifying
            the flesh  with asceticism.  As soon therefore  as he
            saw them, he leapt down straightway from his chariot


                                    p.434

            and fell  upon  the ground  in all reverence.  Rising
            from the ground  he embraced  them, and gave  them  a
            most loving welcome.  This shocked  his magnates  and
            nobles, who thought  the king's action derogatory  to
            his royal  majesty.  Yet not daring  to rebuke  their
            sovereign  to his face, they moved his brother-german
            to tell  the king not to degrade  his kingly  dignity
            thus.  When the brother  urged  this on the king  and
            took  him to task for his ill-advised  selfabasement,
            the king gave him an answer which the brother did not
            understand. For the king had a custom whenever he was
            minded to sentence any one to death, to send a herald
            to  the  doomed  man's  gates  with  a  trumpet  kept
            purposely  for this service.  Its note  told all that
            the man was under  doom  of death.  Accordingly, when
            evening  came on, the king sent the trumpet  of death
            to sound at the gates of his brother's house. So when
            this latter heard the trumpet  of death, he despaired
            of his life, and spent the whole night in putting his
            affairs  in  order.  At  daybreak  he  came  in black
            mourning  garments  with his wife and children to the
            gates  of  the  royal  palace, weeping  and  wailing.
            Taking him in and seeing him thus lamenting, the king
            said, 'Foolish  and  senseless  man, if you  were  so
            terrified  by the messenger  of your  own brother  of
            like  rank  with  yourself,  towards  whom  you  know
            yourself  with  to be void of offence, how was it you
            upbraided me for greeting with humility the messenger
            of my God, who, more  clearly  than  those  trumpet's
            notes, signify to me death and the dread meeting with
            my Lord, against whom I know that I have sinned often
            and sinned  deeply? Know  that it was to expose  your
            folly  that  I adopted  this  stratagem.  And in like
            manner  I will convict  of folly forthwith  those who
            egged you on to censure me.' With this treatment  and
            marks of his favour the king sent his brother home.
                The king ordered  four boxes  of wood to be made.
            Two he cased  in gold  all  over, and, first  filling
            them with the stinking bones of corpses, secured them
            with golden fastenings.  The other two he daubed over
            with pitch and ÿ


                                    p.435

            bitumen, and filled  them  with precious  stones  and
            pearls of great price and all fragrances of myrrh and
            frankincense, tying them up with common  cords.  Then
            he summoned  the magnates  who censured  him for  his
            greeting to the two ascetics, and set before them the
            four boxes  that they might  estimate  the respective
            value  of each pair.  And the magnates  proceeded  to
            give their opinion that the goldplated  boxes were of
            infinite value, 'For, maybe,' says one, 'they contain
            royal tiaras  and girdles, whilst  those daubed  over
            with pitch and bitumen are of sorry, trifling worth.'
                Said the king to them,'I know as well as you that
            you  are  making  these  remarks.  For you judge  the
            object of  sense by the organs of sense.  But this is
            not the right way. Rather  you should  look with your
            inward  eyes on the worth or worthlessness  treasured
            up within.' Then he ordered the gold-plated  boxes to
            be opened, and awful was the stench that, issued from
            them, and horrible the sight their opening disclosed.
            Therefore  the king  said, 'This  is a type  of those
            that are clad in rich  and glorious  raiment, and are
            puffed  up with much glory and dominion, but inwardly
            are festering  corpses and evil doing.' Next, bidding
            the  pitch  and  bitumen  boxes  to  be disclosed, he
            gladdened   the  whole  circle   by  the  sheen   and
            fragrance  of their  contents.  And he said  to them,
            'Know  you whom these  are like?   They are like unto
            those  humble  men  in poor  clothing, whose  outward
            aspect prompted  you to think scorn of my prostrating
            myself  to the earth  before them.  But I, perceiving
            with  the mind's  eye the worth  and beauty  of their
            souls, was honoured  by their touch,: and held   them
            to be of greater  worth than all crowns  and imperial
            purple.'  Thus he put them to shame, and taught  them
            not to be led astray by mere outward appearances, but
            to   concentrate   their   attention   on  underlying
            realities.


                  7. PARABLE OF THE FOWLER AND THE BIRD.

                The worshippers  of idols are like the fowler who
            caught  one of the small birds, called a nightingale.
            But as he took


                                    p.436

            his knife to kill and eat it, articulate  speech  was
            given to the nightingale, and it addressed the fowler
            as follows: 'What  good will my death be to you, man?
            For I shall not enable you to fill your stomach. Now,
            if you will free me from  this gin, I will impart  to
            you three maxims, rules the observance  of which will
            profit you all your life long.' Astounded at the bird
            finding  speech, he promised, if the  bird  told  him
            anything  new, to set it free from durance.  Then the
            nightingale  turned  to  the  man  and  said,  'Never
            attempt  impossibilities  never  fret  over the past;
            never  believe  the incredible.  Observe  just  these
            three   maxims   and  it  will  be  well  with  you.'
            Marvelling  at  the  terse  wisdom  of the  bird, the
            fowler  loosed it from its bonds and let it fly away,
            Curious  to know if the man grasped  the force of its
            counsel  and had profited  thereby, the bird said  to
            him  as it winged  its  way through  its native  air,
            'Alack for your folly, man! What a treasure  you have
            lost to-day! Know that in my inwards there is a pearl
            bigger  than  an ostrich's  egg.'  Hearing  this, the
            fowler was overcome  with grief, repenting  sore that
            the nightingale had escaped his hand, In an endeavour
            to catch it again, he said, 'Come  into my house, and
            I will  be very kind to you and send  you away loaded
            with  honour.'  Said the nightingale, 'Now I know you
            to  be  a downright  fool.  Though  you  listened  so
            intently  and  heard  me  so gladly, you  derived  no
            profit from what I told you. I told you never to fret
            over  what  was  past  and  gone;  and  here  are you
            overcome  with grief, because I am escaped  from your
            hands.  This  is  fretting  over  the  past.  Next, I
            charged  you not to attempt  impossibilities, and you
            try  to catch  me though  you  cannot  reach  my airy
            pathways.  Furthermore, I also  enjoined  you not  to
            believe the incredible.  And lo! you believed that in
            my inwards there was a pearl bigger than my body, and
            had not the wit to understand that the whole of me is
            not equal to the size of an ostrich's  egg.  How then
            was I able to contain within me so big a pearl?'


                                    p.437


                  8. PARABLE OF THE MAN AND THE UNICORN.

                Therefore, those  who are so enslaved  to a cruel
            and  wicked  tyrant, alienating  themselves  to their
            souls' hurt from the good Master who loves men; those
            who clutch at temporal things and are wedded thereto,
            never  taking  thought   of  things   to  come;   who
            unceasingly  pant after bodily  enjoyments  and allow
            their  souls  to  waste  away  with  hunger   and  be
            afflicted with countless evils;  these men I conceive
            to be like a man who, fleeing from the presence  of a
            mad unicorn, and being  unable  to bear the noise  of
            its  roaring  and  its  horrible  bellowing, has fled
            headlong  to escape falling a prey to the beast, and,
            as he runs along so hotly, has fallen head over heels
            into a great  pit.  But as he fell, he stretched  out
            his arms, and clutching a tree held tightly on to it.
            Firmly planting  his feet on a foothold, he seemed to
            be in peace  and safety  thenceforward.  But  looking
            down, he saw  two  mice, one  white  and  one  black,
            ceaselessly  engaged  in gnawing through  the root of
            the tree to which he clung, and just on the point  of
            cutting through it. Then casting his eyes down to the
            bottom  of  the  pit, he  saw  a dragon  of  terrible
            aspect,  breathing  forth  flames  and  glaring  with
            inconceivable  fierceness, yawning horribly  with its
            mouth, and thirsting to swallow him up. And again, as
            he  strained  his  glance  upon  the  foothold  which
            supported  him, he saw four serpents'  heads  issuing
            from  the wall  to which  he had clung! Then, looking
            upward, he saw a little honey trickling down from the
            branches of the tree. Thereupon, casting from him all
            thought   of  the  dangers  which  encompassed   him,
            heedless  of how, without, the  unicorn  in its  fell
            fury sought to devour  him, whilst, beneath, the grim
            dragon had its jaws open to swallow him up;  heedless
            of how  the tree  which  he grasped  was all  but cut
            through, and of how his feet rested on a slippery and
            treacherous support; yes, fondly forgetting all these
            terrible  horrors, his whole attention  was bent upon
            the sweetness of that little honey.
                This is the similitude of those who cleave to the
            deceits


                                    p.438

            of this  life, and  I will  forthwith  tell  you  its
            interpretation. The unicorn shall be a type of Death,
            which  is ever pursuing  and ever straining  to catch
            the race  of Adam.  The pit is the world, full of all
            manner of evils and deadly snares.  The tree to which
            the man clung, and which was unceasingly being gnawed
            through  by the two mice, is the race-course  whereon
            each man's life is run, which  is spent  and expended
            by the hours  of Day and Night, and little  by little
            draws  near  its final  severance.  The four serpents
            symbolize the constitution of the human body as based
            on four fleeting and unstable  elements, the disorder
            and disorganization of which destroy the constitution
            of the  body.  Moreover, the  fiery  ravening  dragon
            typifies the fearful maw of hell which is all agog to
            engulf  those who prefer  temporal  pleasures  to the
            blessings  to come.  And the drip of honey  signifies
            the  sweetness   of  the   world's   pleasures,  that
            sweetness  whereby  the world deludes  its lovers and
            debars  them from taking  forethought  for their  own
            salvation.


                  9. PARABLE OF THE MAN AND HIS THREE FRIENDS.

                Said  the  old man, "Again, those  who love  this
            world's delights and are steeped in its sweets, those
            who prefer  what is fleeting  and frail to the secure
            and abiding bliss to come, are like a certain man who
            had three friends, two of whom he used exceedingly to
            honour and cherish as friends, championing  them even
            with  his  life, and  wooing  peril  for their  sake.
            Whereas   to  the  third  he  used  to  bear  himself
            disdainfully, never deeming  him worthy of honour  or
            of the love that was his due, but showing  him little
            or  no friendship.  Now  one  day  he was  seized  by
            terrible and lawless soldiers, who proceeded  to haul
            him in all haste before the king to answer for a debt
            of a thousand  talents! In his need he set himself to
            seek  a  helper  to  stand  by  him  in  his  dreaded
            reckoning  before the king.  Running therefore to his
            first and most intimate  friend of all, he said, 'You
            know, friend, how I have  ever  exposed  my life  for
            you.


                                    p.439

            Now, yes this very day, I require help in my pressing
            need.  To what extent  do you promise  to stand by me
            now? And what  may I hope  at your  hands, my dearest
            friend?' Then the other  answered  and said, 'I am no
            friend of yours my man.  I do not know who you are. I
            have other friends with whom I must make merry to-day
            and secure  their future  friendship.  See, I let you
            have  two old coats  to take  with  you on your  way,
            though they will be no earthly good to you. But don't
            imagine   you  have   any  further   hopes   from  me
            whatsoever.  Hearing  this and realizing  that he had
            failed  to get the help  he was hoping  for, away  he
            went  to the second  friend  and said, 'You remember,
            comrade, the   honour and goodwill I always paid you.
            Well, to-day  being  fallen  into  distress  and very
            great  calamity, I need a supporter.  How far can you
            back  me?  Let  me  know  at  once.'  And  the  other
            replied,'I have no time to-day to stand by you;  for,
            like  you, I am in trouble  and difficulties  myself,
            and hard put to it.  None the less I will go a little
            way with  you, even  though  I shall  not  do you any
            good.  I must  soon  turn  back  home again  and busy
            myself  with my own personal  cares, which absorb the
            whole  of  my  attention   and  time.'  So  returning
            emptyhanded from his second as from his first friend,
            and knowing not what on earth to do, the man began to
            bewail  the  vanity  of his expectations  from  those
            ungrateful  friends, and  lamented  the  unprofitable
            sacrifices  he had undergone for their love.  Last of
            all, he went to the third  friend, whom  he had never
            courted  or bidden  to share  his jollity.  To him he
            said  with  shamefaced  and downcast  look, 'I cannot
            open my lips to address  you, knowing as I do so well
            that  you have no memory  of kindnesses  or affection
            shown you by me. Still, inasmuch as I am beset by the
            direst  calamity, and  as I found  no hope  of saving
            myself  anywhere  among  the rest of my friends, I am
            come  to you in  my importunity, to see  if you  have
            power to give me a little  assistance.  Do not refuse
            me in indignation at my former lack of kindly feeling
            towards  you.'  The other replied, with a cheery  and
            gracious countenance, 'Nay, indeed, I call you my


                                    p.440

            most  genuine  friend,  and  remembering  that  small
            service  of  yours,  will  repay  it  this  day  with
            interest.  Have  no fear  or alarm, for I will  go on
            ahead  of you and importune  the king in your behalf;
            rest assured  that I will never deliver  you into the
            hands of your enemies. Be of good courage, my dearest
            friend, and give  over sorrowing.'  Thereon  the poor
            man was pricked  to the heart  and said  with  tears,
            'Alack! where  shall  I make beginning  of my weeping
            and  of  my  regrets?  Shall   I  repent   me  of  my
            infatuation  for  those  ungrateful,  thankless,  and
            false  friends? Or shall  I cry out upon the degraded
            indifference  which  I displayed  to  this  true  and
            genuine  friend?'" Now Joasaph, who  had listened  to
            this story too with wonderment, proceeded  to ask its
            interpretation.  And Barlaam  said, "The first friend
            may be taken to be superfluity  of riches and love of
            money-making, for which  man plunges  into  countless
            dangers  and faces manifold  hardships.  But when the
            last summons of Death comes, he receives nothing from
            all these  save  the worthless  rage  needed  for his
            burial.  The second  friend  is a name  for wife  and
            children  and all other  relations  and intimates, to
            whom we cling  so fondly  that we can scarce  be torn
            from  them, showing  ourselves  careless  of our very
            soul  and body because  of our love for them.  Yet no
            profit  did any man ever have  of them in the hour of
            death--save  that  they barely  accompany  him to the
            tomb  and  then  straightway  turn  back  and  absorb
            themselves  in their  own trouble  and  difficulties,
            burying the memory of their whilom dear one as deeply
            in oblivion as they buried his body in the grave. But
            the third friend, on the contrary, who was overlooked
            and held cheap, who was not visited, but avoided  and
            shunned  as it were, he  is the  fellowship  of  good
            works,   such    as   faith,   hope,   love,   mercy,
            loving-kindness, and  the  rest  of the  band  of the
            virtues, which  can  go before  us as we are quitting
            the  body  and  importune  the  Lord  in our  behalf,
            ransoming  us from  our enemies  and from  the  dread
            exactors who ply us in the air with the dread summons
            to pay, and cruelly seek to get mastery over us. This
            is that amiable and good


                                    p.441

            friend who bears faithfully  in mind even well-doing,
            and is minded to repay it interest."  our all modicum
            of to us with interest."


                  10. PARABLE  OF THE KING WHO ASSURED HIMSELF  A
                      HAPPY FUTURE.

                Hearken  to a similitude  of this matter also.  I
            have  heard  of  a  great  city  whose  citizens  had
            observed  from olden  times a custom  of taking  some
            unknown stranger, perfectly  ignorant of the laws and
            usages  of their city, and of setting  him up as king
            over  them, with full enjoyment  of entire  authority
            and with unfettered  poner to carry  out his own will
            until the completion of a year's time. Then, all of a
            sudden, while  the  man  was  quite  at his ease  and
            unsuspectingly revelling and luxuriating, fancying he
            would  remain  king  all  his  life  long, it was the
            practice  of the citizens  to rise against  him, and,
            stripping  him  of his royal  apparel, to parade  him
            stark  naked  through   the  city,  ending   up  with
            banishing  him as an outlaw  to a large  island  afar
            off. In this island, for lack of supplies of food and
            raiment, the whilom king suffered anguish from hunger
            and  nakedness, the  luxury  and delights  which  had
            unexpectedly  been given him being transformed  again
            to   sorrow,  contrary   to   all   his   hopes   and
            expectations.
                According, therefore, to  the  native  custom  of
            these  citizens, a certain  man was set up to be king
            whose    judgment    was   adorned    with    perfect
            understanding.  He was not carried away by the sudden
            advancement  which  had attended  him, nor did he vie
            with   the   lack   of  forethought   of  his   royal
            predecessors now miserably banished; on the contrary,
            he was always  alert  and on the watch  to see how he
            could  ensure  his  welfare: Now, by  the  persistent
            search for accurate information, he learned through a
            very wise councillor  the custom of the citizens  and
            the place  of perpetual  exile, and was shown clearly
            how he ought to safeguard  himself.  When, therefore,
            he knew this and learned  that the island  was on the
            point of receiving him,

                                    p.442

            and that he must leave to other newcomers  the throne
            which he had possessed  but which was not his own, he
            straightway  opened the treasuries (of which meantime
            he had free and unfettered  control) and took  thence
            money in abundance  and an enormous quantity  of gold
            and  silver  bullion  and precious  stones.  This  he
            entrusted to devoted slaves and sent them on with the
            treasure  in advance to the island to which he was to
            be banished.  At the close of the appointed  year the
            citizens rose and transported him all naked, like his
            predecessors  before  him, to banishment.  Wherefore,
            whilst  the rest  of the kings, who were  stupid  and
            lived but for the day, were starving  miserably, this
            man, thanks to the wealth he had stored up in advance
            of his coming, lived  a life of unbroken  ease in the
            lap of inexhaustible  luxury, and, relieved  entirely
            from the fear of the turbulent  and wicked  citizens,
            ceased  not  to congratulate  himself  on his  shrewd
            wisdom.
                Understand,  then, by  the  city  this  vain  and
            deceitful  world;  by the  citizens  the princes  and
            potentates  of the  devils, the  world-rulers  of the
            darkness of this life, who angle for us with the ease
            of pleasure  and egg us on to regard as incorruptible
            what  is transitory  and  corruptible, as though  our
            enjoyment  thereof would last eternally and always be
            with us.  If then  we are deceived  thus and take  no
            heed concerning  the things  eternal, neither  lay up
            provision  for  ourselves  against  the  after  life,
            sudden destruction falls upon us, the destruction  of
            death;...


                  11. PARABLE OF THE POOR BUT HAPPY COUPLE.

                For I have heard  that there  was a certain  king
            who ruled  his kingdom  very righteously  and treated
            his subjects with gentleness and mildness, but failed
            solely   therein   that   he  was  not  rich  in  the
            enlightenment  of knowledge of God, but was misled by
            the delusion  of idols.  Now, he had  a councillor, a
            good man, adorned with piety towards God and with all
            other   virtuous   wisdom,  who,  being  pained   and
            distressed at the king's errors, desired to bring the
            truth

                                    p.443

            home to him;  but he fought  shy of carrying  out his
            purpose, fearing lest he should bring trouble both on
            himself  and on the king's friends  and put a stop to
            the benefits many were enjoying  at the king's hands.
            Nevertheleee, he kept  on the look out for a suitable
            opportunity  to lead  the king  to the truth.  So one
            night  the king said to him, 'Come, let us go out and
            stroll  about  in the  city  to see whether  we shall
            chance to see anything profitable.'  And as they were
            strolling  about  the city, they saw a light  shining
            out of a chink. Clapping their eyes to the hole, they
            saw a sort  of underground  cellar, in the foreground
            of which  sat a man plunged  in extreme  poverty  and
            clad  in sorry  rags.  By him was standing  his wife,
            mixing  wine.  And as the  man  took  the cup  in his
            hands, his wife tried to please him by singing a song
            in a clear  voice  as she danced  to the tune, and by
            cheering  him  up  with  flattering  words.  In  con-
            sequence, those  with the king, after  watching  long
            enough, were  astonished  that  these  people, though
            pinched  so  sorely.  by poverty  as neither  to have
            decent  shelter,  or  clothing,  were  such  cheerful
            livers.  Then  said  the king to his prime  minister,
            'What  a  marvel, my  friend, that  you  and  I never
            enjoyed our lives, brightened though they are by such
            dignify and luxury, so heartily  as these simple folk
            enjoy this sorry and miserable existence, and rejoice
            in this rough and detestable life which seems to them
            easy   and  comfortable.'   Seizing   the  favourable
            opportunity  the prime minister said, 'And how, pray,
            does their condition  strike you, sire?' 'As the most
            unpleasant and the most woful I have ever seen,' said
            the king; 'I call it abominable and detestable.' Then
            said  his  prime  minister, 'Even  such  and far more
            harsh  is the view of our life taken by those  gifted
            with insight, and those who know the mysteries of the
            everlasting  glory  and the blessings  which pass all
            understanding.  Palaces  gleaming  with gold and this
            rich raiment and all the rest of this life's luxuries
            are less  pleasing  than dung and ditch-water  in the
            eyes of those who know the unspeakable  beauty of the
            heavenly  mansions  not  built  by hands, of God-spun
            raiment, and of the in- ÿ


                                    p.444

            corruptible  diadems  which the All-Creator  and Lord
            has prepared  for those that love Him.  For, as these
            two people were adjudged  foolish by us, much more do
            we,  who  are  led  astray   by  the  world  and  are
            self-satisfied  in the midst of this false  glory and
            foolish  luxury, merit weeping  and tears in the eyes
            of those who have tasted the sweetness  of those good
            things.'


                  12. PARABLE  OF THE  RICH  YOUTH  AND THE  POOR
                      MAIDEN.

                And the old man answered  him as follows: "If you
            do this, you will be like  a certain  youth  of great
            intelligence, of whom  I have  heard  that he was the
            son  of  rich  and  noble  parents.  His  father  had
            arranged  a marriage  for him with  a very  beautiful
            girl, the daughter  of a gentleman  notable  for  his
            birth and riches;  but when he communicated  with his
            son about the marriage and the arrangements that were
            being  made  in the son's  behalf, the latter  had no
            sooner heard the project  than he thrust  it aside as
            if it were shameful  and monstrous, and ran away from
            his father.  On his journey, he received  hospitality
            in the  house  of a poor  old  man, as he halted  for
            repose  during  the heat of the day.  Now the old man
            had  an only  daughter, a virgin, who, as she  sat in
            the doorway, kept working away with her hands, whilst
            with  her  lips  she  never  ceased  to  praise  God,
            thanking  Him from the depths  of her heart.  Hearing
            her hymns of praise, the young man said to her, 'What
            are you engaged  in? And what is the reason  why you,
            who are  so poor  and  so badly  off, sing  hymns  of
            praise  and return thanks  to the Giver of your sorry
            lot  as heartily  as though  you had  received  great
            gifts  at His hands?' She answered  him and said, 'Do
            you not know  that, even  as a tiny  drug  oftentimes
            saves   a  man   from   serious   ailments,  so  also
            thankfulness  to God for small things  leads to great
            things? Accordingly, I, though the daughter of a poor
            old  man, nevertheless  thank  God and bless  Him for
            these  small mercies, knowing  that He who gives them
            can  give  greater  things  also.  So much  then  for
            external things that


                                    p.445

            are not our own, wherefrom neither the possessors  of
            abundance  reap any additional  gain (not to speak of
            the actual  loss  in many  cases), nor do they derive
            hurt whose portion  is smaller--seing  that both rich
            and poor are travelling the same road and pressing on
            to the same goal.  Next, in respect of most necessary
            and  momentous  things, I  have  enjoyed  many  great
            blessings  from my Lord, blessings without number and
            beyond  compare.  For  in  God's  image  have  I been
            created, and  of His  knowledge  have  I been  deemed
            worthy;  I have been endowed  with reason beyond  all
            living  creatures, and have been summoned  from death
            to life  on account  of the bowels  of compassion  of
            God;  I received authority to share in His mysteries,
            and the door  of Paradise  has been opened, affording
            me  free  and  unrestrained   entrance,  if  I  will.
            Therefore, for  all  these  great  gifts  (which  are
            shared  alike  by rich  and  by poor), it  is utterly
            beyond my powers to return thanks sufficient.  But if
            I fail to bring even this little tribute of praise to
            the Giver, what manner  of defence  shall  I have  to
            plead?'
                Marvelling   exceedingly   at  the  girl's  great
            understanding, he called  to him her father and said,
            'Give  me your  daughter.  For I am enamoured  of her
            understanding  and piety.'  Said  the old man, 'It is
            impossible  for you, who  come  of a rich  family, to
            take the poor man's daughter  to wife.' But the young
            man  rejoined, 'Yes, I will  marry  her, if you  will
            give your consent. For a daughter of a rich and noble
            house has been sought  in marriage  for me, and I put
            her from me and took to flight.  But, as regards your
            daughter, it is for her piety to God and her sensible
            understanding  that  I have fallen  in love with her,
            and am set upon being united  to her.'  Then said the
            old man  to him, 'I cannot  give  her to you  to take
            away to your father's  house, and to tear her from my
            embrace, for she is my only  child.'  'Nay,' answered
            the young  man, 'I will stop  with you and will adopt
            your way of life.'  Therewithal  he stripped  off his
            own rich suit and attired himself in clothes which he
            begged  of the old man.  After  numerous  trials, and
            after manifold tests of his determination,


                                    p.446

            the old man was sure that the youth  was of steadfast
            mind, and  was  not seeking  the girl  merely  out of
            passion  bred  of  folly, but, on the  contrary, that
            through  love  of piety  he was  choosing  a life  of
            poverty, preferring  such piety to his own estate and
            nobility. Then, taking the youth by the hand, the old
            man led him into his treasure  chamber, and displayed
            the great wealth  he had stored  up and his countless
            piles  of money, more than the youth  had ever before
            set eyes on.  'My son,' said the old man to him, 'all
            this do I give you because of your deliberate  choice
            to succeed to my lot.' The young man became his heir,
            and outstripped all the noble and rich of the land.


                  13. PARABLE OF THE FAWN.

                A rich man was rearing a young fawn: when it grew
            big, its natural  disposition  led it to pine for the
            wilderness. So, going out one day, it found a herd of
            gazelles  grazing, and, keeping  with them, traversed
            the  expenses  of  cultivated   land,  returning   at
            evening, but sallying out again at early morn through
            neglect  of the servants, and grazing  with  the wild
            gazelles.  But as they changed  their feeding grounds
            and moved further off, the fawn, too, travelled along
            with  them.  Marking  this, the rich  man's  servants
            pursued  on horseback  and captured  their  own fawn,
            whom  they brought  back alive, never  letting  it go
            abroad  in future.  As for the  rest  of the herd  of
            gazelles, they killed some and maimed others.


                  14. PARABLE RESPECTING LOVE FOR WOMEN.

                A certain  king  used to fret over  not having  a
            son, a lack which he deplored deeply and accounted  a
            signal misfortune.  And while he was like this, a son
            was born to him, and joy filled the king's heart. But
            the sagest amongst  the physicians  told him that, if
            within  twelve  years  the infant  were to see sun or
            fire, it would  lose  its  sight  altogether, as they
            perceived from the disposition of its eyes. Tradition


                                    p.447

            says that the king consequently hewed a cave-dwelling
            out of the solid rock, and there shut up the babe and
            its  nurses, in order  not  to  let  it see  a single
            glimmer  of light till the twelve years were past and
            gone.  When  these  years  had elapsed, the king took
            from  this  dwelling  the  boy  who  had  never  seen
            anything of the world, and bade everything be paraded
            before  him, each after its kind, for the boy to see.
            There  were men in one place, women in another;  gold
            and  silver  here;  and  there  pearls  and  precious
            stones; rich and gorgeous raiment; beautiful chariots
            drawn  by royal  horses  with golden  bits and purple
            housings, ridden  by men in armour;  herds  of cattle
            and flocks of sheep. In brief, they proceeded to show
            the  boy  everything  in succession.  And  as he kept
            asking what each was called, the king's swordsmen and
            spearsmen  failed not to tell him its name.  But when
            he asked the name of the women, the king's  Yeoman of
            the  Guard   merrily   said  that  they  were  called
            'Demons,' who led men astray. Now the boy's heart was
            much more captivated  by them than by anything  else.
            When, therefore, they  took him back  to the king  at
            the end of the survey, the king proceeded to ask what
            he thought  he liked  best of all he had seen.  'Why,
            those demons,' replied the boy, 'who lead men astray,
            For, of all I have seen to-day, my heart  went out to
            nothing  save them.'  And that king marvelled  at the
            boy's reply, and at the imperious might of man's love
            for women."
                [The  Evil  One entered  into one of the damsels,
            who was the fairest  of them all, being  the daughter
            of  a king, and  a captive  led  away  from  her  own
            country, and given to the king Abenner  as a peerless
            gift, whom  the father  of Joasaph  had sent  to be a
            snare and a stumbling-block to his son.  Into her the
            Deceiver   entered,  and  inspired   her  with  words
            abundantly proving the wisdom and intelligence of her
            understanding.  And he inspired  the prince with love
            for the damsel  on account  of her wit, forsoofh, and
            beauty; and also on account of her having lost, nobly
            born and royal though she was by descent, at once her
            country   and   her  state.   Further,  he  suggested
            arguments to the prince to


                                    p.448

            turn  her  from  her  idolatry  and  to  make  her  a
            Christian. But all this was the craft of the guileful
            Serpent....
                The King divided  into two parts the whole of the
            territory  subject to him, made his son king, crowned
            him with a diadem, and, adorning  him with  all royal
            pomp and state, despatched him with a brilliant train
            to the kingdom set apart for him.
                Filled with holy zeal, the king Abenner  (who had
            been  converted  by his son Joasaph) stamped  heavily
            upon the idols of gold and silver  which  were in his
            palace,  and  broke  them  into  fragments, which  he
            distributed  among the poor, thus making  that useful
            which  before  had been useless.  And with his son he
            beset the temples and altars of idols, and razed them
            to their  very  foundations.  And this they  did, not
            only in the city, but also throughout the whole land,
            with  great  zeal.  Then  was the king  Abenner  made
            perfect  by baptism.  And Joasaph was his sponsor  at
            the font, in this last matter appearing as the parent
            of his own father, repaying  his father  in the flesh
            with spiritual re-birth.
                On the  eighth  day  after  his  father's  death,
            Joasaph returned to his palace and distributed  among
            the poor all his riches and substance, so that no one
            was  left  needy.  A few  days  sufficing  to do this
            service  and  to empty  all his  treasuries, in order
            that the pride of riches might not trammel him in his
            contemplated  passage  through  the narrow gate, --on
            the fortieth day after his father's death, erecting a
            tomb to the latter, he summoned together all those in
            authority  and vested  with  military  command, and a
            number of the citizens (and told them he was resolved
            to  become  a monk, to  their  great  sorrow)....  By
            night, unseen  of any, he left  the  palace.  But  he
            could not escape them entirely.  For at daybreak  the
            news caused uproar and lamentation  among the people;
            and they all set out with  great  speed  to find him,
            with intent  to divert  him by every  means  from his
            flight....  They found him in a ravine with his hands
            uplifted  to heaven, and repeating  the prayer of the
            sixth  hour.  Seeing  him, they  gathered  round  him
            sorrowing, and  upbraiding  his flight.  "In vain  is
            your


                                    p.449

            toil," he answered;  "give up all hopes of having  me
            for your  king  henceforth."...  Thus did that  noble
            youth yield up his throne with joy, even as when from
            a far land  a man returns  to his own  country  right
            glad  of heart.  He was clad  outwardly  in his usual
            garments, but  underneath  in the  hair  shirt  which
            Barlaam  had given him.  That night  he went into the
            house of a poor man on his way, and doffing his outer
            raiment, gave  it to the poor  man as his last act of
            benevolence.....  After many diverse  mischances  and
            tribulations   he  came,  after  many  days,  to  the
            wilderness  of the land  of Senaar, in which  Barlaam
            was  dwelling....  (After  Barlaam's  death)  Joasaph
            endured  to the end, leading  upon  the earth  a life
            truly  angelic,  and  subjecting   himself  to  still
            sterner discipline  after the passing of the old man.
            Five-and-twenty  years  old was he when he gave up an
            earthly   kingdom   and  engaged   in  the  ascetic's
            struggle;  five-and-thirty  years in the heart of the
            wilderness   did  he,  angel-like,  persevere  in  an
            asceticism too rigorous for mortal man.]

    ·期刊原文
    The Parables of Barlaam and Joasaph

    Robert Chalmers
    The Journal Of The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain And Ireland
    1891
    pp.423-449


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    .

     

                                    p.423

                                    I.

            THOUGH  declining  to  pronounce  on the  origin  and
            history of the fables of "Barlaam  and Joasaph" until
            the Buddhist  Jatakas  have been translated  from the
            Pali, M. Zotenberg has been at pains to collect these
            fables and to edit them with a revised  Greek text as
            an appendix to his "Notice sur le livre de Barlaam et
            Joasaph" (Paris, 1886).  A translation of his text is
            here given;  and for the convenience  of students  of
            comparative folk-lore,(1) I have added a translation,
            from  Boissonade's  text  in  " Anecdota  Graeca," of
            further passages bearing on the life of Joasaph.  The
            passages  in  square  brackets  [  ] are  those  from
            Boissonade;  the numbers at the head of the remaining
            sections corresponding to the numbers of the sections
            of M. Zotenberg's text.
                As regards  date and authorship  of the book, the
            conclusions  of M.  Zotenberg  are  that  it was  not
            written by St. John of Jerusalem, but (as most of the
            ancient  manuscripts  state) "a ‚t‚  apport‚ dans  la
            ville sainte (i.e. Jerusalem) par un moine du convent
            de St.  Saba nomm‚ Jean." As the monastery founded by
            St.  Euthymus  was only restored  in A.D.  491 by St.
            Saba, and as no mention of Mahomedanism occurs in the
            category  of  faiths  mentioned   by  the  author  of
            "Barlaam  and Joasaph," the date  of the book must be
            either  the  sixth  or the beginning  of the  seventh
            century A.D. On doctrinal and other internal evidence
            the date is probably about.A.D. 630.
            _____________________________________________________

            (1) See the translation of an Arabic version  in this
                Journal, January, 1890.


                                    p.424

                As regards the origin and history  of the book, I
            venture  to think that it is the life of Joasaph  (or
            "Bodisat ") which is the important  matter, even more
            than the interpolated  fables.  In a further  paper I
            propose to consider  the life of Joasaph in the light
            of the several  accounts  of the life  of the Buddha,
            and to trace the early history of the fables.


                [Now when monasteries  commenced  to spring up in
            Egypt  and monks  to assemble  in great  numbers, and
            when  the report  of their  virtue  and angelic  life
            began to spread  to the ends of the earth and came to
            the Indians, it aroused  these  latter  also  to like
            zeal, so that many of them, leaving  all, took to the
            wilderness, and, whilst still of mortal mould, showed
            forth the state of angels.
                Whilst matters fared thus well, and numbers  were
            winging  their way to heaven  on golden wings (as the
            saying  is), there  arose  a king  in that same land,
            Abenner  by name, who grew great in wealth  and power
            and in victory over his adversaries, and won glory in
            war, and was proud of his great stature and beauty of
            features, revelling  in the marvels  that are of this
            world and will fade all too quickly.  But great  king
            as he was, he was oppressed in his soul by the direst
            poverty.and  vexed  by many evils, being of the Greek
            (i.e.  pagan) faction  and  abject  in the  error  of
            idolworship.  Now though he lived in great luxury and
            enjoyment  of the joys  and pleasures  of life, never
            being  thwarted  in any  of his wishes  and  desires,
            there was one thing in which his gladness  was marred
            and  his  soul   filled   with   cares,  namely,  the
            misfortune  of being  childless.  For  being  without
            offspring, he was moat anxious to be free from such a
            limitation, and  to be called  a father  of  children
            --an end which most men compass very readily.]

                                    p.425


                  1. OF ANGER AND DESIRE,

                Hearing  this, that man of God(1) made suave  but
            steadfast  reply, as  follows: "If, sire, it  be your
            wish  to confer  with me, first  remove  your enemies
            from   your  court,  and  then  I  will  make  answer
            concerning  whatsoever  you may seek  to learn.  For,
            whilst those enemies  are by your side, I have naught
            to say  to your  majesty.  Saying  naught, let  me be
            punished, put to death, and dealt  with  as you will,
            For unto  me,' says  my Master, 'the  world  has been
            crucified, and I unto the world.'  "(2) Then when the
            King  asked  who these  enemies  were whom  he was to
            remove, the man of God answered, " Anger  and Desire.
            For as these were originally implanted by the Creator
            to abet  the natural  man, even such is their  action
            now too, in the case  of all that  are  governed  not
            according  to the Flesh but according  to the Spirit.
            To all such of you as are wholly  Flesh and share not
            in   the   Spirit,  they   have   proved   themselves
            adversaries, and labour  in the cause of your enemies
            and foes.  For Desire, as it excites pleasure when in
            activity, so it excites  Anger when ungratified.  and
            inactive.  Let these  two, therefore, be put from you
            this day;  and let Understanding  and Justice preside
            at the tribunal, to hear  and  to judge  this  cause.
            For, if you will lay aside Anger and Desire, and will
            substitute for them Understanding and Justice, I will
            tell you everything as truth dictates."
                [Now, when  the  ex-Satrap  had  departed  to the
            wilderness again, the King being still more incensed,
            set  about  a  fiercer  persecution  of  monasticism,
            whilst  he paid greater  honour to the ministers  and
            priests of the idols. And whilst the King was in this
            fearful  error and delusion, a son was born to him, a
            child  of great  loveliness, whose  infantine  beauty
            foreshadowed  the future  man.  For it was said  that
            never in that country  had one been seen so extremely
            handsome
            _____________________________________________________

            (1) He  had  been   the  Chief   Satrap,  who,  being
                converted  to Christianity, had  retired  to be a
                monk in the wilderness, from which he was brought
                back by the king's command.

            (2) Galatians vi. 14.


                                    p.426

            and beautiful.  Filled  with  very  great  joy at the
            birth  of his son, the  King  named  him Joasaph, and
            went  in  person  to  the  idols'   temples   to  pay
            sacrifices, in his senseless folly, to gods even more
            senseless, and  to offer  up hymns  of  thanksgiving,
            knowing not who is the Giver of all good things, unto
            Whom should be offered the sacrifice of the spirit.
                Whilst  the festivities  over  the child's  birth
            were still in progress, they brought to the King some
            five-and-fifty    chosen   men,   learned    in   the
            astrological  knowledge  of the  Chaldeans.  And  the
            King, placing  them very close  to himself, proceeded
            to ask them to declare each of them what would be the
            destiny   of  the  son  born  to  him.   After  much:
            consideration  they answered  that he would be great,
            both  in riches  and  in power, and  was destined  to
            surpass  all the   kings before  him.  But one of the
            astrologers, the  most  distinguished  of  them  all,
            said, "From  what the courses  of the stars  tell me,
            Sire, the advancement  of the child  now born  to you
            belongs not to this kingdom  of yours, but to another
            kingdom infinitely  superior.  And I consider that he
            will embrace the religion of the Christians  whom you
            are persecuting, nor do I for my part  think  that he
            will be foiled  of his aim and hope."  Thus spake the
            astrologer, as  of  old  spake  Baalam;  not  because
            astrology  speaks  true, but because  God was showing
            the  truth  by its opposite, so as to rob the ungodly
            of every excuse.]


                  2. How JOASAPH WAS GUARDED.

                When he heard  this, the King was sore distressed
            at the news;  and sorrow  began  to abate  his wonted
            gladness.  Nevertheless, in a quiet retired  town, he
            built  a palace  of great  beauty, with fair chambers
            richly  decorated, wherein  he set his  son to dwell.
            Further, the King ordered  that the prince was not to
            set  foot  outside  the  palace  after  his  earliest
            childhood.  The  tutors  and servants  whom  the King
            appointed were all young and very handsome, and their
            mandate  from the King was not to allow the prince to
            see  any  of  the  loathly  sights  of life, such  as
            old-age,


                                    p.427

            disease, poverty, and all other sad shows which might
            abate  the prince's  gladness.  Instead, they were to
            present   to  his  view  all  things   pleasant   and
            delightful, in order  that his mind, taking  pleasure
            and revelling  therein, might  have no force  left to
            speculate  on the  future, and  that  not  a syllable
            about Christ  and His creed should  reach the ears of
            the prince.  For, beyond everything  else, it was the
            King's peculiar anxiety to keep Christianity a secret
            from  his  son, because  of his secret  dread  of the
            astrologer's prophecy.
                If any of the attendants chanced to fall ill, the
            King  used  to order  him  to  be  removed  from  the
            precincts  at once, and replaced  him by one who  was
            quite  healthy  and well, ¢wall to prevent  his son
            from seeing any strange and startling sight.

                  3.  THE THREE MEETINGS.

                Now the king's  son, about whom our story set out
            originally  to speak, grew  up to adolescence  within
            the palace  prepared  for him, without  ever  setting
            foot outside. He had gone through all the learning of
            the  AEthiopians  and  Persians, and in soul  no less
            than in body showed perfection  and beauty, sense and
            understanding, and  a brilliant  array  of  all  good
            endowments.  So profound were the questions' touching
            Nature which he propounded  to his teachers that they
            were astounded  at the boy's subtlety and wit, whilst
            the king, too, marvelled  both  at the loveliness  of
            his face and the beautiful nature of his soul within.
            And the King  continued  to charge  those  about  the
            prince  not to let  him  come  to have  the slightest
            inkling of the loathly  things of life or of the doom
            of all our delights to give place to death.  But vain
            were the hopes on which he leaned--essaying  to shoot
            at, the  heavens, as the  proverb  has  it.  For  how
            could.  the idea of death have possibly  eluded human
            nature? At any rate, it did not elude this young boy.
            For he, bringing  all his intelligence  to bear  upon
            the question, set himself to consider  privately  the
            reasons why the King refused to let him ever set foot
            outside the palace, and did not admit


                                    p.428

            all  who wished  to have  access  to his  son, For of
            himself  the prince  knew  that  all this  was by the
            King's command.  Yet he did not like to ask the King,
            holding that it was impossible  that his father aimed
            at anything  but his son's welfare, and arguing that,
            if this  were  his father's  design, questioning  him
            would  fail  to elicit  the truth.  Hence  the prince
            resolved  to get his knowledge  not from  his father,
            but from others. Now one of his tutors was nearer and
            dearer  to him than all the rest, being treated  with
            closer  intimacy   and  honoured   with  more  costly
            presents;  and  from  this  man the prince  set about
            enquiring what was the King's object in mewing him up
            within those walls.  '' Explain this to me," said he,
            "and you shall be my favourite beyond all others, and
            I  will  make  a  league   with  you  of  everlasting
            friendship."  Now  the tutor, who was himself, too, a
            man of sense, and knew  the intelligence  and perfect
            understanding  of the  boy, and was assured  that  he
            would  be exposed  to no peril  by his young  charge,
            related the whole story to him from beginning to end,
            telling the prince of the persecution  which the King
            had  waged  against  the Christians, and particularly
            against the ascetics and how they had been driven out
            and expelled  from that country, and what  prophecies
            had been uttered  by the astrologers  when the prince
            was born.  "In  order, therefore," said  the tutor, "
            that you might not hear their  teachings  and come to
            prefer  their religion  to ours, the King was careful
            that your associates  should not be many but definite
            in number, and he gave us commands  not to let any of
            the loathly things of life come to your knowledge."
                Having  heard  this, the youth forebore  to speak
            further;  but his heart  was touched  by the Word  of
            Salvation, and the Grace of the Comforter set to work
            to open the eyes of his mind, leading him by the hand
            to the true God in order  that the Word going  before
            might  reveal  Him.  Very  frequently  the  Ring, his
            father, came to see his son, for he loved him with an
            exceeding  affection;  and  one  day his son said, "I
            wanted  to ask you one thing, my lord  and master, as
            to which grief unending and ceaseless care devours my


                                    p.429

            heart." Filled  with inward  grief at the mere words,
            the King  said, "Tell  me, my darling  son, what  the
            grief is that possesses you, and I will try to change
            it  quickly   into  joy."  The  boy  answered,  "What
            confinement  is  this  of mine  here  that  you  have
            imprisoned  me within walls and gates, and suffer  me
            not to go abroad  or to be seen  publicly?" Said  the
            father,  "I  desire,  my  son, that  you  should  see
            nothing  likely  to sadden  your heart or abate  your
            gladness.  For it is my aim that you should live your
            whole life lapped  in ceaseless  delight  and joy and
            pleasure."  "Oh, but be well assured, sire," answered
            the  boy, "that  this  present  life  of mine  is not
            filled with joy and pleasure to me; nay, rather it is
            filled  with sorrow  and tribulation, so that my very
            meat  and drink  seem distasteful  and bitter.  For I
            yearn to see all that lies outside  these gates.  If,
            then, you wish  me not to live  in pain, give  orders
            that I am to go forth  at my pleasure  and to gladden
            my heart with the sight of what has been invisible to
            me hitherto."  Grief filled the King's  heart when he
            heard this, and he began to ponder how; if he were to
            refuse  his son's request, he would bring  on the boy
            still greater  harm and sorrow, So he made answer, "I
            will  do what  you  desire, my son," and gave  orders
            that a special  chariot  should be at once made ready
            and a king's  escort to attend  it.  Then he directed
            that  the prince  should  be at liberty  to ride  out
            whenever   he  wished,  and  charged   the   prince's
            companions   not  to  confront   him  with   anything
            repulsive, but  to point  out to the  boy  everything
            beautiful and delightful. Companies of minstrels were
            to dance  and sing  in harmonious  unison  along  the
            highways, and  plays  of  great  beauty  were  to  be
            performed, so that his mind might be absorbed therein
            and filled with pleasure. When he was in the frequent
            habit  of going out thus at random  along  the roads,
            the King's son saw one day, through  the carelessness
            of  his  attendants, two  men, of whom  the  one  was
            maimed  and the other  blind.  Seeing  them and being
            pained  at heart by the sight, he said to those  with
            him, " Who are these, and what means their unpleasant
            appearance? " And his attendants, being unable


                                    p.430

            to conceal  what had come  before  his eyes, replied,
            "These are states of human suffering such as are wont
            to assail mortals  as the result of corrupt substance
            and an illhumoured  body."  Said the boy, "Do all men
            alike usually  come to this?" "No;  not all," was the
            answer;  "only those who lose their health because of
            the  malignancy  of their  humours."  So the  boy set
            about  questioning  them  again, saying, "If not all,
            but only  some men come  to this, are the individuals
            known  beforehand  who  will  be  attacked  by  these
            horrors? or  is the  attack  undefined  in scope  and
            unforeseen?" Said they, "Who  among  men can know the
            secrets   of  the  future  and  have  sure  knowledge
            thereof? For  this  is too  great  for  man, and  has
            fallen to the lot of the immortal  gods alone."  Then
            the prince  oeased  from  his questioning, but pained
            was his heart at what he had seen;  and a change came
            over his countenance  because  of the strangeness  of
            the thing.
                Not  many  days  later  as he was  again  passing
            along, he chanced  upon  an aged  man, very  full  of
            gears, wizen in face, tottering in the legs, and bent
            double;  he was white  with age, his teeth were gone,
            and his speech was broken and stammering.  Amazement,
            therefore, seized  the prince, and, bringing  the old
            man near, he began to ask to know the marvel  he saw.
            Then said those  with him, "This  man has now reached
            extreme age;  and as his strength  kept waning little
            by little, and as his limbs.  grew  feeble, he passed
            unawares  into  the wretched  plight  you see."  "And
            what," asked the  boy, "is  the  end  of  this?" said
            they, "The next and only change is death." "Pray tell
            me, does  this fate await  all men alike," asked  the
            prince, " or only  some?" They answered  and said, "
            Unless death anticipate  and bear off a man hence, it
            is impossible, as years  roll on, not to come to have
            experience  of  this  condition."  Said  the  prince,
            "After how many years then does this come upon a man?
            And tell me if death is the doom always, and if there
            is no means of evading  it and also of escaping  this
            misery." They answered, "In eighty or a hundred years
            men glide into this senility, and then


                                    p.431

            die, no alternative  being  given.  For  death  is  a
            natural  debt  laid on mankind  in the beginning, and
            inexorable is death's coming."
                Now, when the clever  and intelligent  youth  had
            seen and heard all this, he said, with groanings from
            the depths  of his heart, "Bitter  is this  life  and
            full of all pain and wretchedness, if this be so. And
            how shall  a man be free  from care  for thinking  of
            unknowable death, whose coming is not only inexorable
            but also  unknowable, and not  to be foretold, as you
            say?" And he went away  turning  all this over in his
            mind,  and   unceasingly   pondering   thereon,  and;
            reminding  himself again and again of death, his life
            being wedded thenceforth  to trouble and despondency,
            and possessed with ceaseless  sorrow.  For he said in
            himself, "shall  I one day fall  a prey to death? And
            who will ' hold me in remembrance after death, seeing
            that time hands over all things to oblivion? And if I
            die, shall  I be dissolved  into  nothingness? or  is
            there  any other  life, and another  and  a different
            world?"


                  4. PARABLE OF THE JEWEL.

                For it chanced  that  at that  time  there  was a
            certain wise monk, who glorified God both in his life
            and  with  his  mouth, and  had  passed  through  all
            monastic  training.  Whence  he  came, and  what  his
            lineage  was, I cannot  say;  but he had taken up his
            abode  in a desert  of the land of Senaar,(1) and had
            become  perfect  in  the  grace  of the  holy  state.
            Barlaam was the name of this old man.
                He then  it was, who, learning  about  the king's
            son  by  a  revelation  from  God, came  out  of  the
            wilderness  to where   men dwelt.  Changing  his  own
            monastic  garb  for a lay  dress, and embarking  on a
            vessel, he came to the kingdom of India.  Then in the
            guise of a merchant he made his way to the city where
            the palace  was  of the king's  son.  After  residing
            there  for  many  days,  he  made  precise  enquiries
            concerning  the  prince  and  the people  about  him.
            Learning,
            _____________________________________________________
            (1) Gen. x. 10; Dan. i. 2.


                                    p.432

            therefore, that beyond all others the aforesaid tutor
            was near  and dear  to the prince, he went to him and
            said  privily, "I would  have  you  to know, my lord,
            that I am a merchant  from  a far country, and that I
            have a precious  stone  the like  of which  has never
            been discovered  before.  Up till now I have shown it
            to no man, but I disclose it to you (whom I see to be
            a man of intelligence  and sense), in order  that you
            may bring  me before  the king's  son and that  I may
            present  it to him.  For, unquestionably, nothing can
            match  it for beauty.  It has power to give the light
            of wisdom  to the blind in heart, to open the ears of
            the deaf, to give speech to the dumb, and strength to
            the sick. The foolish it makes wise, demons it drives
            out, and furnishes  all things  good and fair without
            stint  to its possessor."  Said the tutor  to him, "I
            was taking  you for a man of settled  and solid mind.
            But your words prove you an unmeasured braggart. For,
            as to stones and pearls of great price and value, how
            could  I recount  all I have  seen? Yet  never  did I
            either  see or hear fell of one with such virtues  as
            you say.  Nevertheless, show it me, and if it tallies
            with your  description  I will take  it in at once to
            the prince, and you shall  have  the highest  honours
            and  presents   at  his  hands:  But  before  I  have
            fortified  myself by the sure witness of my own eyes,
            I cannot  carry  this preposterous  report  about  an
            unseen thing to my prince and master."  Barlaam  made
            answer, "Truly  did you say that  you have never  yet
            either seen or heard tell of such powers and virtues.
            For what I tell you relates not to an ordinary thing,
            but to a great marvel. And for that you sought to see
            this stone, hearken to my words.  This precious stone
            possesses  with the aforesaid powers and virtues this
            further quality, namely, that if cannot be seen, even
            when straight before him, by any man who has not both
            strong;  and healthy  vision  and a body  chaste  and
            wholly  undefiled.  For if a man who falls  short  in
            these  two points, gaze unabashed  upon this precious
            stone, of a sooth he shall further lose the vision he
            has and his senses.  Now, I, who am not  unversed  in
            physicians' lore, see that your eyes are not


                                    p.433

            without  blemish, and I fear  to rob you even  of the
            sight you have.  But I have heard that the king's son
            is both chaste of life and endowed  with perfect eyes
            of healthy  vision.  This is why I have not feared to
            show  him this  treasure.  So go not  astray  in this
            matter, and rob not your master of such a treasure."
                To him the tutor  replied, "Well, if this  be the
            case, do not show me the stone.  For my life has been
            defiled  by many sins, and my sight  too, as you say,
            is not sound.  But, being persuaded  by your words, I
            will not shrink from making this known to my lord and
            master."  With  these  words  he went  in and related
            everything point by point to the prince. And when the
            latter  heard  the  tutor's  story, he felt  joy  and
            spiritual gladness breathe in upon his heart, and, as
            though inspired by God, bade the man be brought in at
            once.
                When, therefore, Barlaam came in and gave him due
            salutation  of peace, the prince  allowed  him  to be
            seated. Then when the tutor bad retired, Joasaph said
            to the old man, " Show me the precious stone to which
            my  tutor  tells  me you  attribute  such  great  and
            marvellous   properties."
                So Barlaam  began his discourse  in these  words,
            "It is not right, sire, for me to utter an untrue  or
            ill-considered  word before your Highness'  exceeding
            majesty.  For all that has been  communicated  to you
            from me is true  and beyond  dispute.  Yet, unless  I
            first   make  proof   of  your  understanding,  I  am
            forbidden to reveal the mystery."


                  5. PARABLE OF THE TRUMP OF DEATH.
                  6. PARABLE OF THE FOUR BOXES.

                For there was a great  and glorious  king, and it
            fell  out  that,  as  he  was  riding  along  in  his
            gold-studded  chariot with a royal escort, he met two
            men clad in filthy  rags with pallid, pinched  faces,
            Now the king recognized that they were wasted away by
            reason  of their  contemning  the body and mortifying
            the flesh  with asceticism.  As soon therefore  as he
            saw them, he leapt down straightway from his chariot


                                    p.434

            and fell  upon  the ground  in all reverence.  Rising
            from the ground  he embraced  them, and gave  them  a
            most loving welcome.  This shocked  his magnates  and
            nobles, who thought  the king's action derogatory  to
            his royal  majesty.  Yet not daring  to rebuke  their
            sovereign  to his face, they moved his brother-german
            to tell  the king not to degrade  his kingly  dignity
            thus.  When the brother  urged  this on the king  and
            took  him to task for his ill-advised  selfabasement,
            the king gave him an answer which the brother did not
            understand. For the king had a custom whenever he was
            minded to sentence any one to death, to send a herald
            to  the  doomed  man's  gates  with  a  trumpet  kept
            purposely  for this service.  Its note  told all that
            the man was under  doom  of death.  Accordingly, when
            evening  came on, the king sent the trumpet  of death
            to sound at the gates of his brother's house. So when
            this latter heard the trumpet  of death, he despaired
            of his life, and spent the whole night in putting his
            affairs  in  order.  At  daybreak  he  came  in black
            mourning  garments  with his wife and children to the
            gates  of  the  royal  palace, weeping  and  wailing.
            Taking him in and seeing him thus lamenting, the king
            said, 'Foolish  and  senseless  man, if you  were  so
            terrified  by the messenger  of your  own brother  of
            like  rank  with  yourself,  towards  whom  you  know
            yourself  with  to be void of offence, how was it you
            upbraided me for greeting with humility the messenger
            of my God, who, more  clearly  than  those  trumpet's
            notes, signify to me death and the dread meeting with
            my Lord, against whom I know that I have sinned often
            and sinned  deeply? Know  that it was to expose  your
            folly  that  I adopted  this  stratagem.  And in like
            manner  I will convict  of folly forthwith  those who
            egged you on to censure me.' With this treatment  and
            marks of his favour the king sent his brother home.
                The king ordered  four boxes  of wood to be made.
            Two he cased  in gold  all  over, and, first  filling
            them with the stinking bones of corpses, secured them
            with golden fastenings.  The other two he daubed over
            with pitch and ÿ


                                    p.435

            bitumen, and filled  them  with precious  stones  and
            pearls of great price and all fragrances of myrrh and
            frankincense, tying them up with common  cords.  Then
            he summoned  the magnates  who censured  him for  his
            greeting to the two ascetics, and set before them the
            four boxes  that they might  estimate  the respective
            value  of each pair.  And the magnates  proceeded  to
            give their opinion that the goldplated  boxes were of
            infinite value, 'For, maybe,' says one, 'they contain
            royal tiaras  and girdles, whilst  those daubed  over
            with pitch and bitumen are of sorry, trifling worth.'
                Said the king to them,'I know as well as you that
            you  are  making  these  remarks.  For you judge  the
            object of  sense by the organs of sense.  But this is
            not the right way. Rather  you should  look with your
            inward  eyes on the worth or worthlessness  treasured
            up within.' Then he ordered the gold-plated  boxes to
            be opened, and awful was the stench that, issued from
            them, and horrible the sight their opening disclosed.
            Therefore  the king  said, 'This  is a type  of those
            that are clad in rich  and glorious  raiment, and are
            puffed  up with much glory and dominion, but inwardly
            are festering  corpses and evil doing.' Next, bidding
            the  pitch  and  bitumen  boxes  to  be disclosed, he
            gladdened   the  whole  circle   by  the  sheen   and
            fragrance  of their  contents.  And he said  to them,
            'Know  you whom these  are like?   They are like unto
            those  humble  men  in poor  clothing, whose  outward
            aspect prompted  you to think scorn of my prostrating
            myself  to the earth  before them.  But I, perceiving
            with  the mind's  eye the worth  and beauty  of their
            souls, was honoured  by their touch,: and held   them
            to be of greater  worth than all crowns  and imperial
            purple.'  Thus he put them to shame, and taught  them
            not to be led astray by mere outward appearances, but
            to   concentrate   their   attention   on  underlying
            realities.


                  7. PARABLE OF THE FOWLER AND THE BIRD.

                The worshippers  of idols are like the fowler who
            caught  one of the small birds, called a nightingale.
            But as he took


                                    p.436

            his knife to kill and eat it, articulate  speech  was
            given to the nightingale, and it addressed the fowler
            as follows: 'What  good will my death be to you, man?
            For I shall not enable you to fill your stomach. Now,
            if you will free me from  this gin, I will impart  to
            you three maxims, rules the observance  of which will
            profit you all your life long.' Astounded at the bird
            finding  speech, he promised, if the  bird  told  him
            anything  new, to set it free from durance.  Then the
            nightingale  turned  to  the  man  and  said,  'Never
            attempt  impossibilities  never  fret  over the past;
            never  believe  the incredible.  Observe  just  these
            three   maxims   and  it  will  be  well  with  you.'
            Marvelling  at  the  terse  wisdom  of the  bird, the
            fowler  loosed it from its bonds and let it fly away,
            Curious  to know if the man grasped  the force of its
            counsel  and had profited  thereby, the bird said  to
            him  as it winged  its  way through  its native  air,
            'Alack for your folly, man! What a treasure  you have
            lost to-day! Know that in my inwards there is a pearl
            bigger  than  an ostrich's  egg.'  Hearing  this, the
            fowler was overcome  with grief, repenting  sore that
            the nightingale had escaped his hand, In an endeavour
            to catch it again, he said, 'Come  into my house, and
            I will  be very kind to you and send  you away loaded
            with  honour.'  Said the nightingale, 'Now I know you
            to  be  a downright  fool.  Though  you  listened  so
            intently  and  heard  me  so gladly, you  derived  no
            profit from what I told you. I told you never to fret
            over  what  was  past  and  gone;  and  here  are you
            overcome  with grief, because I am escaped  from your
            hands.  This  is  fretting  over  the  past.  Next, I
            charged  you not to attempt  impossibilities, and you
            try  to catch  me though  you  cannot  reach  my airy
            pathways.  Furthermore, I also  enjoined  you not  to
            believe the incredible.  And lo! you believed that in
            my inwards there was a pearl bigger than my body, and
            had not the wit to understand that the whole of me is
            not equal to the size of an ostrich's  egg.  How then
            was I able to contain within me so big a pearl?'


                                    p.437


                  8. PARABLE OF THE MAN AND THE UNICORN.

                Therefore, those  who are so enslaved  to a cruel
            and  wicked  tyrant, alienating  themselves  to their
            souls' hurt from the good Master who loves men; those
            who clutch at temporal things and are wedded thereto,
            never  taking  thought   of  things   to  come;   who
            unceasingly  pant after bodily  enjoyments  and allow
            their  souls  to  waste  away  with  hunger   and  be
            afflicted with countless evils;  these men I conceive
            to be like a man who, fleeing from the presence  of a
            mad unicorn, and being  unable  to bear the noise  of
            its  roaring  and  its  horrible  bellowing, has fled
            headlong  to escape falling a prey to the beast, and,
            as he runs along so hotly, has fallen head over heels
            into a great  pit.  But as he fell, he stretched  out
            his arms, and clutching a tree held tightly on to it.
            Firmly planting  his feet on a foothold, he seemed to
            be in peace  and safety  thenceforward.  But  looking
            down, he saw  two  mice, one  white  and  one  black,
            ceaselessly  engaged  in gnawing through  the root of
            the tree to which he clung, and just on the point  of
            cutting through it. Then casting his eyes down to the
            bottom  of  the  pit, he  saw  a dragon  of  terrible
            aspect,  breathing  forth  flames  and  glaring  with
            inconceivable  fierceness, yawning horribly  with its
            mouth, and thirsting to swallow him up. And again, as
            he  strained  his  glance  upon  the  foothold  which
            supported  him, he saw four serpents'  heads  issuing
            from  the wall  to which  he had clung! Then, looking
            upward, he saw a little honey trickling down from the
            branches of the tree. Thereupon, casting from him all
            thought   of  the  dangers  which  encompassed   him,
            heedless  of how, without, the  unicorn  in its  fell
            fury sought to devour  him, whilst, beneath, the grim
            dragon had its jaws open to swallow him up;  heedless
            of how  the tree  which  he grasped  was all  but cut
            through, and of how his feet rested on a slippery and
            treacherous support; yes, fondly forgetting all these
            terrible  horrors, his whole attention  was bent upon
            the sweetness of that little honey.
                This is the similitude of those who cleave to the
            deceits


                                    p.438

            of this  life, and  I will  forthwith  tell  you  its
            interpretation. The unicorn shall be a type of Death,
            which  is ever pursuing  and ever straining  to catch
            the race  of Adam.  The pit is the world, full of all
            manner of evils and deadly snares.  The tree to which
            the man clung, and which was unceasingly being gnawed
            through  by the two mice, is the race-course  whereon
            each man's life is run, which  is spent  and expended
            by the hours  of Day and Night, and little  by little
            draws  near  its final  severance.  The four serpents
            symbolize the constitution of the human body as based
            on four fleeting and unstable  elements, the disorder
            and disorganization of which destroy the constitution
            of the  body.  Moreover, the  fiery  ravening  dragon
            typifies the fearful maw of hell which is all agog to
            engulf  those who prefer  temporal  pleasures  to the
            blessings  to come.  And the drip of honey  signifies
            the  sweetness   of  the   world's   pleasures,  that
            sweetness  whereby  the world deludes  its lovers and
            debars  them from taking  forethought  for their  own
            salvation.


                  9. PARABLE OF THE MAN AND HIS THREE FRIENDS.

                Said  the  old man, "Again, those  who love  this
            world's delights and are steeped in its sweets, those
            who prefer  what is fleeting  and frail to the secure
            and abiding bliss to come, are like a certain man who
            had three friends, two of whom he used exceedingly to
            honour and cherish as friends, championing  them even
            with  his  life, and  wooing  peril  for their  sake.
            Whereas   to  the  third  he  used  to  bear  himself
            disdainfully, never deeming  him worthy of honour  or
            of the love that was his due, but showing  him little
            or  no friendship.  Now  one  day  he was  seized  by
            terrible and lawless soldiers, who proceeded  to haul
            him in all haste before the king to answer for a debt
            of a thousand  talents! In his need he set himself to
            seek  a  helper  to  stand  by  him  in  his  dreaded
            reckoning  before the king.  Running therefore to his
            first and most intimate  friend of all, he said, 'You
            know, friend, how I have  ever  exposed  my life  for
            you.


                                    p.439

            Now, yes this very day, I require help in my pressing
            need.  To what extent  do you promise  to stand by me
            now? And what  may I hope  at your  hands, my dearest
            friend?' Then the other  answered  and said, 'I am no
            friend of yours my man.  I do not know who you are. I
            have other friends with whom I must make merry to-day
            and secure  their future  friendship.  See, I let you
            have  two old coats  to take  with  you on your  way,
            though they will be no earthly good to you. But don't
            imagine   you  have   any  further   hopes   from  me
            whatsoever.  Hearing  this and realizing  that he had
            failed  to get the help  he was hoping  for, away  he
            went  to the second  friend  and said, 'You remember,
            comrade, the   honour and goodwill I always paid you.
            Well, to-day  being  fallen  into  distress  and very
            great  calamity, I need a supporter.  How far can you
            back  me?  Let  me  know  at  once.'  And  the  other
            replied,'I have no time to-day to stand by you;  for,
            like  you, I am in trouble  and difficulties  myself,
            and hard put to it.  None the less I will go a little
            way with  you, even  though  I shall  not  do you any
            good.  I must  soon  turn  back  home again  and busy
            myself  with my own personal  cares, which absorb the
            whole  of  my  attention   and  time.'  So  returning
            emptyhanded from his second as from his first friend,
            and knowing not what on earth to do, the man began to
            bewail  the  vanity  of his expectations  from  those
            ungrateful  friends, and  lamented  the  unprofitable
            sacrifices  he had undergone for their love.  Last of
            all, he went to the third  friend, whom  he had never
            courted  or bidden  to share  his jollity.  To him he
            said  with  shamefaced  and downcast  look, 'I cannot
            open my lips to address  you, knowing as I do so well
            that  you have no memory  of kindnesses  or affection
            shown you by me. Still, inasmuch as I am beset by the
            direst  calamity, and  as I found  no hope  of saving
            myself  anywhere  among  the rest of my friends, I am
            come  to you in  my importunity, to see  if you  have
            power to give me a little  assistance.  Do not refuse
            me in indignation at my former lack of kindly feeling
            towards  you.'  The other replied, with a cheery  and
            gracious countenance, 'Nay, indeed, I call you my


                                    p.440

            most  genuine  friend,  and  remembering  that  small
            service  of  yours,  will  repay  it  this  day  with
            interest.  Have  no fear  or alarm, for I will  go on
            ahead  of you and importune  the king in your behalf;
            rest assured  that I will never deliver  you into the
            hands of your enemies. Be of good courage, my dearest
            friend, and give  over sorrowing.'  Thereon  the poor
            man was pricked  to the heart  and said  with  tears,
            'Alack! where  shall  I make beginning  of my weeping
            and  of  my  regrets?  Shall   I  repent   me  of  my
            infatuation  for  those  ungrateful,  thankless,  and
            false  friends? Or shall  I cry out upon the degraded
            indifference  which  I displayed  to  this  true  and
            genuine  friend?'" Now Joasaph, who  had listened  to
            this story too with wonderment, proceeded  to ask its
            interpretation.  And Barlaam  said, "The first friend
            may be taken to be superfluity  of riches and love of
            money-making, for which  man plunges  into  countless
            dangers  and faces manifold  hardships.  But when the
            last summons of Death comes, he receives nothing from
            all these  save  the worthless  rage  needed  for his
            burial.  The second  friend  is a name  for wife  and
            children  and all other  relations  and intimates, to
            whom we cling  so fondly  that we can scarce  be torn
            from  them, showing  ourselves  careless  of our very
            soul  and body because  of our love for them.  Yet no
            profit  did any man ever have  of them in the hour of
            death--save  that  they barely  accompany  him to the
            tomb  and  then  straightway  turn  back  and  absorb
            themselves  in their  own trouble  and  difficulties,
            burying the memory of their whilom dear one as deeply
            in oblivion as they buried his body in the grave. But
            the third friend, on the contrary, who was overlooked
            and held cheap, who was not visited, but avoided  and
            shunned  as it were, he  is the  fellowship  of  good
            works,   such    as   faith,   hope,   love,   mercy,
            loving-kindness, and  the  rest  of the  band  of the
            virtues, which  can  go before  us as we are quitting
            the  body  and  importune  the  Lord  in our  behalf,
            ransoming  us from  our enemies  and from  the  dread
            exactors who ply us in the air with the dread summons
            to pay, and cruelly seek to get mastery over us. This
            is that amiable and good


                                    p.441

            friend who bears faithfully  in mind even well-doing,
            and is minded to repay it interest."  our all modicum
            of to us with interest."


                  10. PARABLE  OF THE KING WHO ASSURED HIMSELF  A
                      HAPPY FUTURE.

                Hearken  to a similitude  of this matter also.  I
            have  heard  of  a  great  city  whose  citizens  had
            observed  from olden  times a custom  of taking  some
            unknown stranger, perfectly  ignorant of the laws and
            usages  of their city, and of setting  him up as king
            over  them, with full enjoyment  of entire  authority
            and with unfettered  poner to carry  out his own will
            until the completion of a year's time. Then, all of a
            sudden, while  the  man  was  quite  at his ease  and
            unsuspectingly revelling and luxuriating, fancying he
            would  remain  king  all  his  life  long, it was the
            practice  of the citizens  to rise against  him, and,
            stripping  him  of his royal  apparel, to parade  him
            stark  naked  through   the  city,  ending   up  with
            banishing  him as an outlaw  to a large  island  afar
            off. In this island, for lack of supplies of food and
            raiment, the whilom king suffered anguish from hunger
            and  nakedness, the  luxury  and delights  which  had
            unexpectedly  been given him being transformed  again
            to   sorrow,  contrary   to   all   his   hopes   and
            expectations.
                According, therefore, to  the  native  custom  of
            these  citizens, a certain  man was set up to be king
            whose    judgment    was   adorned    with    perfect
            understanding.  He was not carried away by the sudden
            advancement  which  had attended  him, nor did he vie
            with   the   lack   of  forethought   of  his   royal
            predecessors now miserably banished; on the contrary,
            he was always  alert  and on the watch  to see how he
            could  ensure  his  welfare: Now, by  the  persistent
            search for accurate information, he learned through a
            very wise councillor  the custom of the citizens  and
            the place  of perpetual  exile, and was shown clearly
            how he ought to safeguard  himself.  When, therefore,
            he knew this and learned  that the island  was on the
            point of receiving him,

                                    p.442

            and that he must leave to other newcomers  the throne
            which he had possessed  but which was not his own, he
            straightway  opened the treasuries (of which meantime
            he had free and unfettered  control) and took  thence
            money in abundance  and an enormous quantity  of gold
            and  silver  bullion  and precious  stones.  This  he
            entrusted to devoted slaves and sent them on with the
            treasure  in advance to the island to which he was to
            be banished.  At the close of the appointed  year the
            citizens rose and transported him all naked, like his
            predecessors  before  him, to banishment.  Wherefore,
            whilst  the rest  of the kings, who were  stupid  and
            lived but for the day, were starving  miserably, this
            man, thanks to the wealth he had stored up in advance
            of his coming, lived  a life of unbroken  ease in the
            lap of inexhaustible  luxury, and, relieved  entirely
            from the fear of the turbulent  and wicked  citizens,
            ceased  not  to congratulate  himself  on his  shrewd
            wisdom.
                Understand,  then, by  the  city  this  vain  and
            deceitful  world;  by the  citizens  the princes  and
            potentates  of the  devils, the  world-rulers  of the
            darkness of this life, who angle for us with the ease
            of pleasure  and egg us on to regard as incorruptible
            what  is transitory  and  corruptible, as though  our
            enjoyment  thereof would last eternally and always be
            with us.  If then  we are deceived  thus and take  no
            heed concerning  the things  eternal, neither  lay up
            provision  for  ourselves  against  the  after  life,
            sudden destruction falls upon us, the destruction  of
            death;...


                  11. PARABLE OF THE POOR BUT HAPPY COUPLE.

                For I have heard  that there  was a certain  king
            who ruled  his kingdom  very righteously  and treated
            his subjects with gentleness and mildness, but failed
            solely   therein   that   he  was  not  rich  in  the
            enlightenment  of knowledge of God, but was misled by
            the delusion  of idols.  Now, he had  a councillor, a
            good man, adorned with piety towards God and with all
            other   virtuous   wisdom,  who,  being  pained   and
            distressed at the king's errors, desired to bring the
            truth

                                    p.443

            home to him;  but he fought  shy of carrying  out his
            purpose, fearing lest he should bring trouble both on
            himself  and on the king's friends  and put a stop to
            the benefits many were enjoying  at the king's hands.
            Nevertheleee, he kept  on the look out for a suitable
            opportunity  to lead  the king  to the truth.  So one
            night  the king said to him, 'Come, let us go out and
            stroll  about  in the  city  to see whether  we shall
            chance to see anything profitable.'  And as they were
            strolling  about  the city, they saw a light  shining
            out of a chink. Clapping their eyes to the hole, they
            saw a sort  of underground  cellar, in the foreground
            of which  sat a man plunged  in extreme  poverty  and
            clad  in sorry  rags.  By him was standing  his wife,
            mixing  wine.  And as the  man  took  the cup  in his
            hands, his wife tried to please him by singing a song
            in a clear  voice  as she danced  to the tune, and by
            cheering  him  up  with  flattering  words.  In  con-
            sequence, those  with the king, after  watching  long
            enough, were  astonished  that  these  people, though
            pinched  so  sorely.  by poverty  as neither  to have
            decent  shelter,  or  clothing,  were  such  cheerful
            livers.  Then  said  the king to his prime  minister,
            'What  a  marvel, my  friend, that  you  and  I never
            enjoyed our lives, brightened though they are by such
            dignify and luxury, so heartily  as these simple folk
            enjoy this sorry and miserable existence, and rejoice
            in this rough and detestable life which seems to them
            easy   and  comfortable.'   Seizing   the  favourable
            opportunity  the prime minister said, 'And how, pray,
            does their condition  strike you, sire?' 'As the most
            unpleasant and the most woful I have ever seen,' said
            the king; 'I call it abominable and detestable.' Then
            said  his  prime  minister, 'Even  such  and far more
            harsh  is the view of our life taken by those  gifted
            with insight, and those who know the mysteries of the
            everlasting  glory  and the blessings  which pass all
            understanding.  Palaces  gleaming  with gold and this
            rich raiment and all the rest of this life's luxuries
            are less  pleasing  than dung and ditch-water  in the
            eyes of those who know the unspeakable  beauty of the
            heavenly  mansions  not  built  by hands, of God-spun
            raiment, and of the in- ÿ


                                    p.444

            corruptible  diadems  which the All-Creator  and Lord
            has prepared  for those that love Him.  For, as these
            two people were adjudged  foolish by us, much more do
            we,  who  are  led  astray   by  the  world  and  are
            self-satisfied  in the midst of this false  glory and
            foolish  luxury, merit weeping  and tears in the eyes
            of those who have tasted the sweetness  of those good
            things.'


                  12. PARABLE  OF THE  RICH  YOUTH  AND THE  POOR
                      MAIDEN.

                And the old man answered  him as follows: "If you
            do this, you will be like  a certain  youth  of great
            intelligence, of whom  I have  heard  that he was the
            son  of  rich  and  noble  parents.  His  father  had
            arranged  a marriage  for him with  a very  beautiful
            girl, the daughter  of a gentleman  notable  for  his
            birth and riches;  but when he communicated  with his
            son about the marriage and the arrangements that were
            being  made  in the son's  behalf, the latter  had no
            sooner heard the project  than he thrust  it aside as
            if it were shameful  and monstrous, and ran away from
            his father.  On his journey, he received  hospitality
            in the  house  of a poor  old  man, as he halted  for
            repose  during  the heat of the day.  Now the old man
            had  an only  daughter, a virgin, who, as she  sat in
            the doorway, kept working away with her hands, whilst
            with  her  lips  she  never  ceased  to  praise  God,
            thanking  Him from the depths  of her heart.  Hearing
            her hymns of praise, the young man said to her, 'What
            are you engaged  in? And what is the reason  why you,
            who are  so poor  and  so badly  off, sing  hymns  of
            praise  and return thanks  to the Giver of your sorry
            lot  as heartily  as though  you had  received  great
            gifts  at His hands?' She answered  him and said, 'Do
            you not know  that, even  as a tiny  drug  oftentimes
            saves   a  man   from   serious   ailments,  so  also
            thankfulness  to God for small things  leads to great
            things? Accordingly, I, though the daughter of a poor
            old  man, nevertheless  thank  God and bless  Him for
            these  small mercies, knowing  that He who gives them
            can  give  greater  things  also.  So much  then  for
            external things that


                                    p.445

            are not our own, wherefrom neither the possessors  of
            abundance  reap any additional  gain (not to speak of
            the actual  loss  in many  cases), nor do they derive
            hurt whose portion  is smaller--seing  that both rich
            and poor are travelling the same road and pressing on
            to the same goal.  Next, in respect of most necessary
            and  momentous  things, I  have  enjoyed  many  great
            blessings  from my Lord, blessings without number and
            beyond  compare.  For  in  God's  image  have  I been
            created, and  of His  knowledge  have  I been  deemed
            worthy;  I have been endowed  with reason beyond  all
            living  creatures, and have been summoned  from death
            to life  on account  of the bowels  of compassion  of
            God;  I received authority to share in His mysteries,
            and the door  of Paradise  has been opened, affording
            me  free  and  unrestrained   entrance,  if  I  will.
            Therefore, for  all  these  great  gifts  (which  are
            shared  alike  by rich  and  by poor), it  is utterly
            beyond my powers to return thanks sufficient.  But if
            I fail to bring even this little tribute of praise to
            the Giver, what manner  of defence  shall  I have  to
            plead?'
                Marvelling   exceedingly   at  the  girl's  great
            understanding, he called  to him her father and said,
            'Give  me your  daughter.  For I am enamoured  of her
            understanding  and piety.'  Said  the old man, 'It is
            impossible  for you, who  come  of a rich  family, to
            take the poor man's daughter  to wife.' But the young
            man  rejoined, 'Yes, I will  marry  her, if you  will
            give your consent. For a daughter of a rich and noble
            house has been sought  in marriage  for me, and I put
            her from me and took to flight.  But, as regards your
            daughter, it is for her piety to God and her sensible
            understanding  that  I have fallen  in love with her,
            and am set upon being united  to her.'  Then said the
            old man  to him, 'I cannot  give  her to you  to take
            away to your father's  house, and to tear her from my
            embrace, for she is my only  child.'  'Nay,' answered
            the young  man, 'I will stop  with you and will adopt
            your way of life.'  Therewithal  he stripped  off his
            own rich suit and attired himself in clothes which he
            begged  of the old man.  After  numerous  trials, and
            after manifold tests of his determination,


                                    p.446

            the old man was sure that the youth  was of steadfast
            mind, and  was  not seeking  the girl  merely  out of
            passion  bred  of  folly, but, on the  contrary, that
            through  love  of piety  he was  choosing  a life  of
            poverty, preferring  such piety to his own estate and
            nobility. Then, taking the youth by the hand, the old
            man led him into his treasure  chamber, and displayed
            the great wealth  he had stored  up and his countless
            piles  of money, more than the youth  had ever before
            set eyes on.  'My son,' said the old man to him, 'all
            this do I give you because of your deliberate  choice
            to succeed to my lot.' The young man became his heir,
            and outstripped all the noble and rich of the land.


                  13. PARABLE OF THE FAWN.

                A rich man was rearing a young fawn: when it grew
            big, its natural  disposition  led it to pine for the
            wilderness. So, going out one day, it found a herd of
            gazelles  grazing, and, keeping  with them, traversed
            the  expenses  of  cultivated   land,  returning   at
            evening, but sallying out again at early morn through
            neglect  of the servants, and grazing  with  the wild
            gazelles.  But as they changed  their feeding grounds
            and moved further off, the fawn, too, travelled along
            with  them.  Marking  this, the rich  man's  servants
            pursued  on horseback  and captured  their  own fawn,
            whom  they brought  back alive, never  letting  it go
            abroad  in future.  As for the  rest  of the herd  of
            gazelles, they killed some and maimed others.


                  14. PARABLE RESPECTING LOVE FOR WOMEN.

                A certain  king  used to fret over  not having  a
            son, a lack which he deplored deeply and accounted  a
            signal misfortune.  And while he was like this, a son
            was born to him, and joy filled the king's heart. But
            the sagest amongst  the physicians  told him that, if
            within  twelve  years  the infant  were to see sun or
            fire, it would  lose  its  sight  altogether, as they
            perceived from the disposition of its eyes. Tradition


                                    p.447

            says that the king consequently hewed a cave-dwelling
            out of the solid rock, and there shut up the babe and
            its  nurses, in order  not  to  let  it see  a single
            glimmer  of light till the twelve years were past and
            gone.  When  these  years  had elapsed, the king took
            from  this  dwelling  the  boy  who  had  never  seen
            anything of the world, and bade everything be paraded
            before  him, each after its kind, for the boy to see.
            There  were men in one place, women in another;  gold
            and  silver  here;  and  there  pearls  and  precious
            stones; rich and gorgeous raiment; beautiful chariots
            drawn  by royal  horses  with golden  bits and purple
            housings, ridden  by men in armour;  herds  of cattle
            and flocks of sheep. In brief, they proceeded to show
            the  boy  everything  in succession.  And  as he kept
            asking what each was called, the king's swordsmen and
            spearsmen  failed not to tell him its name.  But when
            he asked the name of the women, the king's  Yeoman of
            the  Guard   merrily   said  that  they  were  called
            'Demons,' who led men astray. Now the boy's heart was
            much more captivated  by them than by anything  else.
            When, therefore, they  took him back  to the king  at
            the end of the survey, the king proceeded to ask what
            he thought  he liked  best of all he had seen.  'Why,
            those demons,' replied the boy, 'who lead men astray,
            For, of all I have seen to-day, my heart  went out to
            nothing  save them.'  And that king marvelled  at the
            boy's reply, and at the imperious might of man's love
            for women."
                [The  Evil  One entered  into one of the damsels,
            who was the fairest  of them all, being  the daughter
            of  a king, and  a captive  led  away  from  her  own
            country, and given to the king Abenner  as a peerless
            gift, whom  the father  of Joasaph  had sent  to be a
            snare and a stumbling-block to his son.  Into her the
            Deceiver   entered,  and  inspired   her  with  words
            abundantly proving the wisdom and intelligence of her
            understanding.  And he inspired  the prince with love
            for the damsel  on account  of her wit, forsoofh, and
            beauty; and also on account of her having lost, nobly
            born and royal though she was by descent, at once her
            country   and   her  state.   Further,  he  suggested
            arguments to the prince to


                                    p.448

            turn  her  from  her  idolatry  and  to  make  her  a
            Christian. But all this was the craft of the guileful
            Serpent....
                The King divided  into two parts the whole of the
            territory  subject to him, made his son king, crowned
            him with a diadem, and, adorning  him with  all royal
            pomp and state, despatched him with a brilliant train
            to the kingdom set apart for him.
                Filled with holy zeal, the king Abenner  (who had
            been  converted  by his son Joasaph) stamped  heavily
            upon the idols of gold and silver  which  were in his
            palace,  and  broke  them  into  fragments, which  he
            distributed  among the poor, thus making  that useful
            which  before  had been useless.  And with his son he
            beset the temples and altars of idols, and razed them
            to their  very  foundations.  And this they  did, not
            only in the city, but also throughout the whole land,
            with  great  zeal.  Then  was the king  Abenner  made
            perfect  by baptism.  And Joasaph was his sponsor  at
            the font, in this last matter appearing as the parent
            of his own father, repaying  his father  in the flesh
            with spiritual re-birth.
                On the  eighth  day  after  his  father's  death,
            Joasaph returned to his palace and distributed  among
            the poor all his riches and substance, so that no one
            was  left  needy.  A few  days  sufficing  to do this
            service  and  to empty  all his  treasuries, in order
            that the pride of riches might not trammel him in his
            contemplated  passage  through  the narrow gate, --on
            the fortieth day after his father's death, erecting a
            tomb to the latter, he summoned together all those in
            authority  and vested  with  military  command, and a
            number of the citizens (and told them he was resolved
            to  become  a monk, to  their  great  sorrow)....  By
            night, unseen  of any, he left  the  palace.  But  he
            could not escape them entirely.  For at daybreak  the
            news caused uproar and lamentation  among the people;
            and they all set out with  great  speed  to find him,
            with intent  to divert  him by every  means  from his
            flight....  They found him in a ravine with his hands
            uplifted  to heaven, and repeating  the prayer of the
            sixth  hour.  Seeing  him, they  gathered  round  him
            sorrowing, and  upbraiding  his flight.  "In vain  is
            your


                                    p.449

            toil," he answered;  "give up all hopes of having  me
            for your  king  henceforth."...  Thus did that  noble
            youth yield up his throne with joy, even as when from
            a far land  a man returns  to his own  country  right
            glad  of heart.  He was clad  outwardly  in his usual
            garments, but  underneath  in the  hair  shirt  which
            Barlaam  had given him.  That night  he went into the
            house of a poor man on his way, and doffing his outer
            raiment, gave  it to the poor  man as his last act of
            benevolence.....  After many diverse  mischances  and
            tribulations   he  came,  after  many  days,  to  the
            wilderness  of the land  of Senaar, in which  Barlaam
            was  dwelling....  (After  Barlaam's  death)  Joasaph
            endured  to the end, leading  upon  the earth  a life
            truly  angelic,  and  subjecting   himself  to  still
            sterner discipline  after the passing of the old man.
            Five-and-twenty  years  old was he when he gave up an
            earthly   kingdom   and  engaged   in  the  ascetic's
            struggle;  five-and-thirty  years in the heart of the
            wilderness   did  he,  angel-like,  persevere  in  an
            asceticism too rigorous for mortal man.]

     

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