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    The Poetics of Ch'an:Upaayic Poetry and Its Taosist Enrichment
     
    [ 作者: Sandra A.Wawrytko   来自:期刊原文   已阅:14962   时间:2007-1-17   录入:ningguannan

    ·期刊原文

    The Poetics of Ch'an:Upaayic Poetry and Its Taosist Enrichment

    Sandra A.Wawrytko
    Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal
    No.5 July,1992
    Chung-Hwa Insitute of Buddhist Studies
    P.341-378


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

                                    P.341

            Summary

     

                The inherent suitability  of the poetic form for

            communicating  the ineffable  has long been known to

            poet-practioners in all mystical traditions.  Poetry

            offers  possibilities  of indirection  and evocation

            far   beyond   those   of  any  prose   style.   The

            open-endedness of a poem serves the same function as

            the blank  space  in a Ch'an painting, allowing  the

            audience  to resonate  (yu-yun, Japanese  yoin) with

            the work and, most importantly, with the artist.  In

            this  way, "Artistic  appreciation  is...transformed

            into meditation."

                This paper discusses the pivotal role played by

            poetry,as it evolved from the Sanskrit gaathaa found

            in  Buddhist  suutras,  within  the  Ch'an  sect  of

            Buddhism.   After  a  brief  review  of  the  poetic

            component  in  early  Buddhist  literature, we  will

            consider   the  indigenous   Chinese  tradition   of

            poetically-expressed  philosophy that influenced the

            evolution of sinitic Buddhism. The creative mergence

            of  these  diverse  sources  within  Ch'an  is  then

            considered   through   examples   of   the   upaayic

            application  of  poetry  in  terms  o f a three-fold

            process of awakening.

                The opening section describes the poetic path to

            enlightenment, focussing on the function of gaathaas

            in the Buddhist  literature.  Of primary  importance

            here is an understnading of why and how poetry could

            function  as a vehicle of Dharma in the suutras from

            the very inception of Buddhism.

                The poetic  precursors  in the Taoist  tradition

            are then considered. Two roots of the Chinese poetic

            tradition  generally  have been identified-the  Shih

            Ching   (Classic   of  Poetry)  emphasized   by  the

            Confucian school and the Ch'u Tz'u. (Elegies of Ch'u

            or Song  of the  South) displaying  affinities  with

            Taoist  philosophy.  The latter  currents  were best

            able   to  resonate   with   Buddhist   thought,  as

            exemplified   in  Lao  Tzu's   Tao   Te  Ching,  the

            Neo-Taoist  currents in Liu I-ch'ing's  New Tales of

            the World (Shih-shuo Hsin-yu), and the transitional,

            Buddhist tinged lines of T'ao

     

     

                                    P.342

     

            Ch'ien.

                The Ch'an synthesis reflects a threefold process

            of enlightenment, sometimes characterized as the Way

            of the Ancient  masters, The Ch'an  of Voidness, and

            the Ch'an of the Patriarchs.  This same process  can

            be traced in certain poetic expressions of the Ch'an

            practitioners,including Hui-Neng,Pai-chang Huai-hai,

            and   Hsiang-yen   Chih-hsien.   A   more   in-depth

            epistemological analysis of the threefold experience

            of awakening  is presented  in terms  of the  famous

            enlightenment  poem of Ch'ing-yuan Wei-hsin. The ex-

            position  aims  to  demonstrate  that,  building  on

            Indian sourecs, and enriched  by Chinese  poetic and

            Taoist  traditions, Ch'an  poetics  evolved  into  a

            powerful upaayic tool.

     

     

                                    P.343

     

            1. The POETIC PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENT(1)

     

                The inherent suitability  of the poetic form for

            communicating  the ineffable  has long been known to

            poet-practitioners   in  all  mystical   traditions.

            Examples  may be cited from such diverse  sources as

            the  Psalms  of the  Bible  and  the Bhagavad  Gita.

            Pieces  have  been  penned  by poets  as diverse  as

            Kukai, Mechthild of Magdeburg, and William Blake.(2)

                Poetry offers possibilities  of indirection  and

            evocation  far beyond those of any prose style.  Its

            metaphorical  use  of  language  is  able  to elicit

            meanings  without  bluntly  asserting   them.   More

            importantly,  perhaps, it  has  the  advantage  over

            clearcut declarations  of suggesting  a multiplicity

            of   meanings,  suited   to  its   multiplicity   of

            audiences.  Here  indeed  it truly  can be said that

            "less is more": less explicit  content  leaves  room

            for   more   implicit   connotations.    Thus,   the

            openendedness of a poem serves the  same function as

            the blank  space  in a Ch'an painting, allowing  the

            audience  to resonate  (yu-yun,)Japanese  yoin) with

            the work and, most importantly, with the artist.  In

            this way, "Artistic  appreciation  is..  transformed

            into   meditation."(3)

                The following  discussion  concerns  the pivotal

            role  played  by  poetry, as  it  evolved  from  the

            Sanskrit  gaathaa  found in Buddhist  suutra, within

            the Ch'an sect of Buddhism.  After a brief review of

            the poetic component  in early Buddhist  literature,

            we will consider the indigenous Chinese tradition of

            poetically-expressed  philosophy that influenced the

            evolution of sinitic Buddhism. The creative mergence

            of  these  diverse  sources  within  Ch'an  is  then

            considered   through   examples   of   the   upaayic

            application  of  poetry  in  terms  of  a three-fold

            process of awakening. This leads to an outline for a

            poetics of Ch'an as reflected  in an epistemological

            analysis  of  a famous  set  of Ch'an  enlightenment

            poems. Lucien Stryk observes:

                Writers   of  such  poems   did  not  think   of

            themselves as poets. Rather they were

            ────────────

            (1) Ke-tao(Japanese, Kado), the poetry way.

            (2)For an inter-cultural wealth of examples, see The

               Enlightened Heart: An Anthology of Sacred Poetry,

               Stephen  Mitchell  ed.  (New York: Harper  & Row,

               1989).

            (3) Horst  Hammitzsch, Zen  in the  Art  of the  Tea

                Ceremony, Peter  Lemesurier  trans.  (New  York:

                E.P. Dutton, 1988), p.93.

     

     

                                    P.344

     

            gifted  men-masters,  monks, some  laymen-who  after

            momentous   experiences    found   themselves   with

            something  to say which  only a poem could  express.

            Enlightenment, point  of  their  meditation, brought

            about  transformation  of  the  spirit;  a poem  was

            expected to convey the essential experience  and its

            effect.(4)

     

            As will be argued  here, these  poems  do not merely

            document and validate the enlightenment  experience,

            but also played an important  role as catalysts  and

            guides for progress along the enlightenment path.

     

            The Function of Gaathaas in the Buddhist Literature

     

                The Sanskrit  term gaathaa  (Chinese  chia-t'uo;

            Japanese ga-da( is a "song...a metrical narrative or

            hymn, with  moral  purport, described  as  generally

            composed  of  thirty-two  characters,..  a  detached

            stanza." (5) Gaathaas are classified  among the nine

            classes  of  suutras  in  Theraraada   Buddhism,  as

            distinguished   from  actual   sermons,  prophecies,

            etc.(6) In the Mahaayaana  canon, gaathaas represent

            one of the twelve divisions of the canon.(7)

                Gaathaas  often  appear  within  the context  of

            suutras  as  means  of  further  explicating  stated

            points.  For example, the Diamond  Suutra  concludes

            with  a brief  poetic  pronouncement  that restates,

            while reinforcing, the abstract  message of the text

            in terms of concrete images:

     

                All phenomena  are  like

                A dream, an illusion, a bubble  and  a shadow,

                Like dew and lightening.

                Thus should you meditate upon them.(8)

     

            Similarly,  in the La^nkaavataara Suutra the  Buddha

            punctuates his discourse with

            ────────────

            (4) Lucien Stryk in his Introduction  to The Penguin

                Book  of Zen  Poetry, Lucien  Stryk  and Takashi

                Ikemoto  eds., trans.  (New York: Penguin Books,

                1981), p.13

            (5) William Edward Soothill, A Dictionary of Chinese

                Buddhist  Terms  (London:  Kegan  Paul,  Trench,

                Trubner & Co., Ltd., 1934), p.225a.

            (6) Soothill, p.19b.

            (7) Soothill, p.44a.

     

     

                                    P.345

     

            gaathaas   summarizing   the  main  thrust   of  his

            exposition.  The same rhetoric  style is adopted  by

            many  who  preach.  For  example, Jesus  of Nazareth

            often  avails  himself  of  vivid  metaphorical  and

            allegorical language to convey his message about the

            Kingdom of God.

                It is quite likely  that these poetic  phrasings

            of doctrine  represent  a mnemonic  device  for  the

            listeners,  with  the  rhyme   scheme   serving   to

            facilitate  memorization.   The  necessity  of  such

            devices was further reinforced  by the fact that the

            sermons of the Buddha were not written down for some

            four hundred  years, but committed  to memory by his

            followers  and  transmitted  orally.(9) The concrete

            language  of the  poetic  versions  also  stimulated

            comprehension  by  offering  an  alternative  to the

            abstract   profundity   of   the    concepts   being

            expressed, as well  as making  the encoded  messages

            more accessible to less sophisticated members of the

            audience.

                An  additional  factor here was  the  difficulty

            inherent   in  communicating   certain   fundamental

            aspects  of  the  Dharma.  As  a preclude  to Ch'an,

            Buddhism in India already was exploring the rarefied

            realm   of   spiritual   experience    that   defied

            verbalization.    The   following    passage    from

            A.s.tasaahasrikaa  Praj~naapaaramitaa  outlines  the

            linguistic and conceptual liabilities  of discussing

            enlightenment:

     

            The  Enlightened   One  sets  forth   in  the  Great

            Ferryboat  (Mahaayaana);  but there is nothing  from

            which  he sets forth.  He starts  from the universe;

            but in truth  he starts  from  nowhere.  His boat is

            manned with all the perfections  (paaramitaas);  and

            is manned  by no one.  It will  find its supprot  on

            nothing whatsoever  and will find its support on the

            state  of  all-knowing, which  will  serve  it as  a

            non-support.  Moreover, no one has ever set forth in

            the Great ferryboat;  no one will ever set froth  in

            it, and no one  is setting forth in it now.  And why

            is

            ────────────

            (8) The Diamond Suutra, Charles Luk trans., included

                in the Bilingual  Buddhist  Series, Suutras  and

                Scriptures,  Vol.1   (Taipei,  Taiwan:  Buddhist

                Culture Service, 1962), p.132

            (9) Edward  Conze  notes: "For  four  centuries  the

                Scriptures  went  not  written  down,  and  only

                existed  in the memory  of the monks.  Like  the

                Brahmins, the Buddhists had a strong aversion to

                writing down religious knowledge." Buddhism: Its

                Essence and Development (New York: Harper & Row,

                1959), p.89.

     

     

                                    P.346

     

                this? Because neither the one setting  forth nor

                the goal for which he sets forth is to be found:

                therefore,  who  should  be  setting  forth, and

                whither? (10)

            This situation  created  quite a quandary  for those

            who  nonetheless  sought  to propagate  the  Dharma.

            Thus, the following guidelines were set forth:

     

                ‧Rely on the teaching, not the teacher.

                ‧Rely on the meaning, not the letter.

                ‧Rely on the definitive  meaning (nitaartha),

                  not the interpretable meaning (neyaartha).

                ‧Rely  on  wisdom  (j~naana), not  on  [ordinary]

                  consciousness (vij~naana). (11)

     

            Each of these guidelines redirects the focus away

            from  intellectual  abstractions  and  back  to  the

            original   experiential   core   of   the   Buddha's

            enlightenment.  The same point is emphasized  by the

            Buddha  in his parting  advice  to his disciples  to

            diligently   pursue   their   individual   paths  to

            awakening.

                And   so  the  stage   was  set  for  linguistic

            indirection   and   evocation,  summarized   in  the

            well-known four points of Ch'an, often attributed to

            Bodhidharma:

     

               ‧ direct transmission outside the Scriptures;

               ‧ non-reliance on verbal expression;

               ‧ direct pointing to the hear/mind(hsin);

               ‧ seeing  into one's  original  nature  (hsing) to

               ‧ realize our inherent Buddhahood.

     

            Properly  applied, poetry can satisfy  each of these

            requirements: it goes beyond the actual  content  of

            orthodox   texts,  it  utilizes   language   without

            limiting itself to sim---

            ────────────

            (10) A.s.tasaaharkaa  Praj~naapaarmitaa  (The Wisdom

                 that  has Gone  Beyond), as quoted  by Heinrich

                 Zimmer  in  Philosophies  of India  (Princeton,

                 1951), p.485.

            (11) Catuhpratisaranasutra  ( Sutra   of  the   Four

                 Refuges), as quoted  by Donald  S.Lopez  in his

                 introduction   to  his  edited  text,  Buddhist

                 Hermeneutics  (Honolulu: University  of  Hawaii

                 Press, 1988), p.3.

     

     

                                    P.347

     

            ple  denotation,  and  it  provides   a  species  of

            ostensive  definition  through  its  marshaling   of

            images.  Finally, by  means  of the  above  methods,

            poetry  provides  insight  into the inmost depths of

            reality.

                The mergence of Buddhism  and poetry through the

            common  thread  of enlightenment  was aptly noted by

            literary critic Yen Yuu in the twelfth century:

     

                Generally  speaking, the Way of Buddhism lies on

                enlightenment.  The way of poetry  also  lies on

                enlightenment.     Meng    Hao-yen's    academic

                achievement   is  far  below   that  of  Han  Yu

                (769-824).  Meng's  poetry  is much better  than

                that of Han Yu. The reason for this is that Meng

                has  achieved  enlightenment, but  Han has  not.

                (12)

     

            Accordingly,    Buddhists     were     distinguished

            contributors  to the Chinese poetic tradition, while

            Chinese  poets were greatly  influenced  by Buddhist

            doctrine.

     

            II. POETIC PRECURSORS IN THE TAOIST TRADITION

     

            The Twofold Root of the Chinese Poetic Tradition

     

                Chinese   culture   was  eminently   suited   to

            appreciate  the  Buddhist  use of poetry  due to its

            centuries-long  cultivation of poetic sensibilities.

            Being grounded in the same philosophical perspective

            of reality that suffuses the I Ching, Chinese poetry

            from   its   inception   has   evidenced   a  highly

            sophisticated  use of imagery.  The images  were not

            construed  as mere metaphors, but in fact  represent

            metaphysics  made  concrete: "the Chinese  poem  was

            assumed   to   invoke   a  network   of  preexisting

            correspondences-between  poet  and  world  and among

            clusters of images." (13) Thus, philosophers such as

            Confucius   made  poetry  a  focal  point  of  moral

            education.  (14)

                Two books generally are considered  to represent

            the earliest collections of

            ────────────

            (12) Yen  Yu,  as  quoted  by  Chang  Chung-yuan  in

                 Creativity  and  Taoism:  A  Study  of  Chinese

                 Philosophy, Art, and Poetry (New York: Harper &

                 Row, 1970), p.186.

            (13) Pauline  Yu, The  Reading  of  Imagery  in  the

                 Chinese   Poetic   Tradition   (Princeton,  New

                 Jersey:  Princeton  University  Press,  1987) ,

                 p.36.

            (14) For a fuller discussion  of this point, see Yu,

                 "Imagery in the Classic of Poetry," pp.44-83.

     

     

                                    P.348

     

            Chinese  poetry, the Shih Ching (Classic  of Poetry)

            and the Ch'u Tz'u (Elegies  of Ch'u  or Song  of the

            South).  Geographically  considered, they  represent

            respectively  the northern  and southern  strains of

            early  Chinese  civilization, the first centered  in

            the  vicinity  of the  Yellow  River  (Shandong  and

            Hopei) and the second  in the Yangtze  river  valley

            (Hunan  and  Hupeh) .Culturally,  these  anthologies

            contain   the  twofold  root  of  Chinese   literary

            tradition,    whose    offshoots    developed     as

            manifestations   of    two    essentially    diverse

            approaches  to life, two unique ways of being in the

            world.

                The Shih Ching anthology consists of folk songs,

            court compositions, and ritual hymns. The preface to

            the text succinctly  conveys the reigning perception

            of  poetry's   origins   within   individual   human

            experience,  as   well   as   its   social-political

            functions:

     

                Poetry  is where  the intent  of the  heart/mind

                (hsin) goes.  What  in the  heart  is intent  is

                poetry when emitted in words.  An emotion  moves

                within and takes form in words.  If words do not

                suffice, then  one sighs;  if sighing  does  not

                suffice, then one prolongs  it [the emotion]  in

                song;   if  prolonging  through  song  does  not

                suffice,then  one unconsciously  dances  it with

                hands and feet.  Emotions are emitted in sounds,

                and when sounds  form a pattern, they are called

                tones.  The tones of a well-governed  world  are

                peaceful   and  lead   to  joy,  its  government

                harmonious;  the tones  of a chaotic  world  are

                resentful  and  angry, its government  perverse;

                the tones  of a defeated  state are mournful  to

                induce  longing, its people in difficulty.  Thus

                in regulating success and failure, moving heaven

                and  earth, and  causing  spirits  and  gods  to

                respond, nothing comes closer than poetry. (15)

                In  contrast,  the  Ch'u   Tz'u   represents   a

            collection  of poems composed in the southern  state

            of Ch'u, many of which  are attributed  to Ch'u Yuan

            (343? -278 b.c.e.), the first Chinese  poet known by

            name.  These  poems  differ  both stylistically  and

            thematically  from  the  poems  of the  Shih  Ching,

            bearing the unmistakable  influence of the religious

            culture  of the Ch'u state, which  was more  closely

            con-

            ────────────

            (15) Great  Preface  (Ta  Hsu) to  the  Shih  Ching,

                 attribute to Wei Hong; included in Yu,pp.31-32.

     

     

                                    p.349

     

            nected  to its tribal origins  than was the agrarian

            culture to the north.  The Ch'u Tz'u poems are known

            for  detailed  descriptions  of magical  flights  to

            heavenly kingdoms and of encounters with the various

            gods  and goddesses  of the Ch'u pantheon, generally

            associated  with various  rivers and mountains.  The

            poets  of the south  anthologized  in the Ch'u  Tz'u

            blithely  describe  the ecstatic spirit journeys  of

            shamans  and meeting  with divine beings.  Exorcism,

            prophecy,  divination,  dream   interpretation,  and

            other occult  activities  were practiced  by the wu,

            many of whom were women.

     

            Lao Tzu

     

                Not  surprisingly, the  reputed  founder  to the

            school  of Taoism, Lao Tzu (Li Erh), is said to have

            been a native  of Ch'u.  Moreover, adherents  of the

            Taoist school were also predominantly from the south

            (as opposed  to the northern  base  of the Confucian

            school, Ju Chia).  Lao Tzu's  preference  for poetic

            expression  is reflected in the style of his reputed

            text,  the  Tao  Te  Ching.   The  mystically-tinged

            elements   of  the  Ch'u   anthology   reappear   as

            embodiments of metaphysical  truths in Taoist texts.

                Although  poetical in content, the form in which

            the Tao Te Ching  is written  does  not  conform  to

            traditional  models  of the  shih;  it does  fit the

            broader  definition  of poetry as recognized  in the

            West  by virtue  of its  frequent  use of rhyme  and

            pervasive  imagery.  By way of illustration, let  us

            examine the images in the seminal opening chapter of

            the Tao Te Ching.

                The tao  that  can be taoed  is not the enduring

                Tao;

                The name  that can be named  is not the enduring

                Name.

                As  No-thingness  [Tao]  is named the origin  of

                Heaven  and Earth;

                As Being [Tao]  is named  the mother  of the Ten

                Thousand Things.

                Thus, always   in   terms   of  No-thingness,

                One contemplates its [hidden] wonders;

                Always in terms   of  Being,

                One   contemplates   its [manifested] forms.

                These two spring forth from the same [source],

     

     

                                    P.350

     

                And yet they differ in name.

                Both are called "profoundly dark";

                Profoundly dark and ever profoundly dark,

                The gateway to infinite wonders.(16)

     

            In these lines Lao Tzu initiates the questioning  of

            the   legitimacy,  and  even   the  possibility,  of

            confining   reality   to  the  limits  of  language,

            qualifying   him  as  a  precursor  of  Ch'an.   The

            "enduring Tao" as all-pervasive  substratum  remains

            everelusive, nor can it be fixated  by a mere  name.

            The word "enduring" (ch'ang) is sometimes translated

            as "constant"  or "eternal".  The Chinese  character

            depicts  a flag  outside  the  headquarters  of  the

            commanding general. Extrapolating from this concrete

            image, the flag may  be interpreted  as a sign  or a

            symbol of leadership. Furthermore, the flag connotes

            a special  sense  of  movement  within  constancy, a

            supple  flexibility  fluttering  in the breeze.  The

            sense  of stability  amid  flux is missing  from the

            word "eternal," which refers to something outside of

            time, outside of change (e.g., the Platonic  Forms).

            Tao,   however,   is   immanent   in,  rather   than

            transcendent  of, the  world  of  change-it  is  the

            changeless  that endures in the midst of change.  In

            the Silk manuscript  the word  "heng"  (constant) is

            inserted  in  place  of  "ch'ang."   This  character

            depicts the heart/mind  (hsin) in a constant  orbit,

            revolving  around  and  around  in  a  set  pattern.

            Despite  the differences  between the words heng and

            ch'ang, they do share a common sense of movement  in

            accordance with a natural rhythm. In contrast to the

            western philosophical preference for an otherworldly

            ("real world") perfection that is eternal, Lao Tzu's

            Tao is consistent with the traditional  Chinese view

            of  dynamic  reality, as contained  in the  I Ching.

            Change, then, is not an affront  or a weakness  or a

            negation, but simply and admitted characteristic  of

            reality.

                The name  given  to Tao, is not  its real  name,

            merely a heuristic device. What is unique about this

            so-called  Nameless  Tao is that not only can it not

            be named  by us, but moreover  no name  can ever  be

            applicable  to it.  The ultimate  reality  cannot be

            encompassed  within the necessarily restricted scope

            of linguist  patterns.  The problem  resides  not in

            Tao, but  rather  in the  inherent  deficiencies  of

            human

            ────────────

            (16) Charles We-hsun Fu and Sandra A. Wawrytko,

               trans., Lao  Tzu: Tao  Te Ching: A New  Annotated

               Translation (forthcoming from Greenwood Press).

     

     

                                    P.351

     

            discourse, and so the essential dissonance  existing

            between language and Taoism is revealed. Language is

            fundamentally  based  on  naming.  Names  provide  a

            common  point of reference  for communication;  they

            define and delimit reality within the confines  most

            comfortable  to human comprehension.  Thus, language

            is best able to deal with tangible objects and their

            properties  (such  as color) that  fall  within  the

            range of human experience.  The cultural  nuances of

            that experience  occasionally  result  in words that

            defy  translation  when  a corresponding  experience

            does not exist in the second culture.(17)

                The  strength  of language  allows  us to fix or

            secure  things by means of a name or label.  However

            such  fixation  also  can be fatal.  Thus, Friedrich

            Nietzsche sarcastically berates western philosophers

            for a mind-set grounded  in abstract  verbalization:

     

                You ask me which of the philosophers' traits are

                really  idiosyncrasies? For example, their  lack

                of historical  sense, their  hatred  of the very

                idea of becoming, their  Egypticism.  They think

                that they show their respect for a subject  when

                they de-historicize  it, sub specie aetenuu-when

                they turn it into a mummy. All that philosophers

                have handled  for thousands  of years  have been

                concept-mummies;   nothing  real  escaped  their

                grasp alive.  When these honorable  idolaters of

                concepts  worship  something, they  kill  it and

                stuff it;  they threaten  the life of everything

                they worship. Death, change, old age, as well as

                procreation  and  growth,  are  to  their  minds

                objections-even refutations.(18)

     

            In   sharp   contrast,  Lao   Tzu   emphasizes   the

            flexibility of names vis-a-vis Tao.  The name Mother

            of the Ten Thousand  Things applies  to Tao as Being

            (yu), that is, the "manifest forms" that are subject

            to   linguistic   analysis   and   fixation.   These

            correspond to the limits of cognition and intellect.

            But it also has another name, "No-

            ────────────

            (17) One example would be the Japanese  phrase "mono

                 no  aware."  There  is no exact  equivalent  in

                 English, inasmuch  as  its  cultural  aesthetic

                 does not include  nor value precisely  the same

                 experience as does the Japanese aesthetic.

            (18) Friedrich  Nietzsche, "Reason'  in Philosophy,"

                 from  Twilight  of the  Idols, Walter  Kaufmann

                 trans.  And included in The Portable  Nietzsche

                 (New York: Viking Press, 1968), p.479.

     

     

                                    P.352

     

            thingness"  (wu) as "origin of Heaven and Earth." In

            the latter sense we are forced  beyond the limits of

            language  and into the realm of the wondrous (miao).

            This  is the same rarefied  territory  tread  by the

            Ch'an  Buddhist, a region  suffused  with  ineffable

            spirituality.  Deprived  of the crutch  of language,

            how  are we to communicate  such  things? The Taoist

            invites  us to soar on the wings of poetry, engaging

            our creative imagination and transcending  cognitive

            reason.  Lao Tzu seems to echo the insights of Lu Ji

            regarding the creative process:

     

                Impose on empty nonbeing to ask forth being,

                Knock on deepest silence in search of sound.(19)

     

            Although  both  perspectives,  the  Mother  and  the

            Origin, are possible, there is a definite  priority,

            ontologically speaking, given to No-thingness.

                One might  interpret  this  passage  as a set of

            guidelines  suggesting  how  to reconcile  the  dual

            perspectives, later discussed  as the worldviews  of

            the  worldling  and  the Sage.  The worlding  is not

            totally  wrong  in  his  or her  perceptions, merely

            excessively  limited, a limitation  inherent  in the

            temptation to name, to verbalize, to define reality,

            thus bringing  it into our sphere  of influence  and

            control.  Another  image from chapter  38 serves  to

            clarify the relationship  between these two views in

            an appropriately poetic way:

     

                Those who have  foreknowledge  are [merely]  the

                flower of Tao,

                And the beginning of human folly.

                Accordingly, the accomplished  person  holds  to

                what is thick,

                And does not reside in what is thin;

                Holds  to the fruit  and does not reside  in the

                flower.

                Therefore, prefers the one and avoids the other.

     

            The  flower  prefigures  the fruit, as the worldling

            does  the  Sage.  But  no fruit  is forthcoming  if,

            dazzled by the flower's beauty, we pluck it from the

            branch and

            ────────────

            (19) Lu Ji, Wen Xuan, 17/4b/p.309. as quoted by Yu,

             p.35.

     

     

                                    P.353

     

            interrupt (wei) the natural cycle.

     

                The  key  word  in  the  lines  describing   the

            "manifest  forms"  versus  the "hidden  wonders"  is

            "contemplate"  (kuan).  Usually  this  character  is

            simply translated  as "see".  Yet it connotes  much,

            much more  than  mere  seeing;  it is a very special

            species  of seeing. Etymologically  it contains  two

            components-a  heron beside  an eye on two feet, that

            is, human vision. The encoded message, then, implies

            something unique about how this bird see.  The egret

            is  a water  bird  that  has  a very  characteristic

            survival  skill-it  stands perfectly  still for long

            periods  of time.  Rather  than  clumsily  splashing

            about the shallows  on its ungainly legs frightening

            its prey, it waits  unobtrusively, non-threateningly

            for the fish to come  to it, and then  strikes  with

            its long beak.(20)

                Perhaps  this is Lao Tzu's subtle recommendation

            for reading his text, for comprehending Tao.  If you

            pick up this book intending to force the meaning out

            of it you  will  never  be successful.  Instead, you

            have  to wait  for the meaning  to come to you.  The

            more  you  try to grasp  it and the more  you try to

            analyze  it, the deeper  you sink into the obscuring

            mire  of language.  Taoism  is, in that  sense, very

            demanding, it  requires  considerable  patience  and

            receptivity.  Receptivity  is the  key  point, being

            ready and able to resonate  with what reveals itself

            to you.  The same  can  be said  for the cultivation

            that precedes enlightenmental break-through in Ch'an

            practice.

                The  closing  lines  of the  first  chapter  are

            equally     important     in     emphasizing     the

            interrelatedness    of    the    two    perspectives

            (paralleling  the  Samsaara/Nirvaa.na   mergence  in

            Ch'an):

     

                These two [the  manifest  forms  and the hidden

                wonders]   spring   forth   from   the  same

                [source].

                And yet they differ in name.

                Both are called "profoundly dark,"

            ────────────

            (20) An alternative  etymology  interprets  kuan  in

                 terms of a "bird's-eye  view" from the heights,

                 and by extension meaning a look-out point, high

                 tower, or Taoist monastery.

     

     

                                    P.354

     

                Profoundly dark and ever profoundly dark,

                The Gateway to infinite wonders.

     

            Notice what Lao Tzu is describing here;  he does not

            offer  us  the  clear, glaring  truth, but  a  murky

            profundity.  He does not promise  infinite  wonders,

            only the Gateway, the point  of entry  is indicated.

            The rest of the way remains  for us to travel alone,

            again,  a  prefiguring  of  the  Ch'an  emphasis  on

            self-reliance.

                The character  rendered  here  as "profoundly

            dark" (hsuuan) depicts  a piece of silk thread which

            has been dipped in dye.  Hence, it bears the literal

            meaning  of  dark, darkened, and  by  extrapolation,

            something mysterious. This same character is used in

            combination with several others throughout the text:

            "the  profoundly  dark  mirror  (hsuan-lan) " or the

            inmost  heart/mind  (10);  "profoundly  dark  virtue

            (hsuante)," the most  deeply  rooted  of all virtues

            (51,65); "the profoundly dark female (hsuan-p'in), "

            embodying the Taoistically prioritized yin force (6)

            ;  "the profoundly dark union (hsuan-t'ung)" between

            ourselves and Tao(56,65).

                Furthermore, since this is a piece  of silk that

            has been dyed, one might  read this, hermeneutically

            speaking, as a spurious process.  The mystery is not

            really inherent in Tao any more than the darkness is

            inherent  to the  silk.  Tao  is  mysterious  to  us

            because  we have  artificially  distanced  ourselves

            from  it,  inducing  a  sense  of  estrangement  and

            alienation.  We have  mystified  it by our unnatural

            attempts  to make it conform to language  and logic.

            On the other  side of the gateway, when the barriers

            of   language    have   been   surmounted,   "subtle

            enlightenment (wei-ming)" awaits (chapter 36). It is

            precisely    this   something   else   that   defies

            expression, except by poetic indirection.

                The Buddhists  found  their  natural  allies  in

            the Taoist  camp.  The collaboration  began  with  a

            borrowing   of  Taoist   terminology   to  translate

            Buddhist  concepts  into  the  Chinese  intellectual

            context, culminating in the birth of a new school:

     

                Zen may.. be regarded as the fullest development

                of Taoism  by wedding  it to congenial  Buddhist

                insights  and the powerful  Buddhist  impulse of

                apostolic  zeal.  If  Buddhism  is  the  father,

                Taoism  is the mother of this prodigious  child.

                But there can be no denying that the child looks

                more like the mother than the child.(21)

     

     

                                    P.355

     

            Neo-Taoist  Currents in Liu I-ch'ing's  New Tales of

            the World (Shih-shuo Hsin-yu)

     

            The   cultural   encounter   will   and   increasing

            adaptation   of  Buddhism  in  Chinese  intellectual

            circles  is recorded  in the pages of Liu I-ch'ing's

            classic  collection  of anecdotes, New Tales  of the

            World  (Shih-shuo  Hsin-yuu).  It also  records  the

            skirmishes between the "Conformist" Confucian forces

            and  the  "Naturalist"   Taoist   camp,  vying   for

            political control of the court. The execution of the

            out-spoken  naturalist proponent Hsi K'ang (223-262)

            was a strong inducement  for more veiled expressions

            in a poetic form. Thus, Juan Chi (210-263) contrasts

            the broad vision of the Naturalists  with the narrow

            vision of the Conformists  using the imagery  of the

            crane and the small birds:

     

                Amid the clouds there is a dark-hued crane;

                With high resolve  it lifts its mournful  sound.

                Once flown from sight into the blue-green  sky.

                In all the world it will not cry again.

                What has it to  do with  quails  and  sparrows

                Flapping their wings in play within the central

                court? (22)

     

            One could  readily  conclude  that Buddhism  offered

            ever greater  attractions  for the disappointed  and

            embattled  Taoist  forces  as a means to escape  the

            domination  of their  Confucian  foes.  The  general

            openness  of the intellectual  climate  during  this

            period facilitated a Taoist-Buddhist synthesis among

            the literati.(23) These develop-

            ────────────

            (21) John  C.H.Wu, The  Golden  Age  of Zen,  rev.ed

                 ( Taipei,  Taiwan : United  Publishing  Center,

                 1975), p.44

            (22) Note  the  poet's  allusion  to  the  differing

                 visions  of the P'eng bird and the little  dove

                 in  the  first  chapter   of  the  Chuang  Tzu,

                 respectively  representing  Great Knowledge (ta

                 chih) and Small Knowledge (hsiao chih).  Quoted

                 by Richard B.Mather in his introduction  to Liu

                 I-ch'ing's  Shih-shuo Hsin-yu: A New Account of

                 Tales of the World (Minneapolis: University  of

                 Minnesota   Press,  1976) ,  p.xix.   See  also

                 Mather's informative discussion of the conflict

                 between the Naturalists and the Conformists  in

                 this essay.

     

     

                                    P.356

     

            ments are reflected in the pages of the New Tales of

            the World ( shih-shuo  Hsin-yu ),  where the Taoist-

            Buddhist interactions are documented. Among the most

            influential  of the Buddhists  was the monk Chih Tun

            (314-366), who was highly regarded for his eloquence

            and scholarship,including creative reinterpretations

            of  such  Taoist  texts  as  the  Chuang  Tzu.   His

            importance  can  be gauged  from  the fact  that  he

            merited   nearly   fifty  mentions   in  the  Tales.

            Commenting  on a comparison between erudition in the

            North  as opposed  to the  South, Chih  Tun utilized

            both metaphorical  language  and an allusion  to the

            Taoists' distrust of language:

     

                Sages  and  worthies, of course, are  those  who

                'forget  speech,' but  if  we're  talking  about

                people  from the middle  range down, the reading

                of the Northerners is like viewing the moon in a

                bright   place,  while  the  erudition   of  the

                Southerners  is like peering at the sun  through

                a window.(24)

     

                The   Tales  also  demonstrate  the   continuing

            prominence  of poetic  expression  in all  walks  of

            life-from  political  intrigue  to social criticism,

            literary  fame to refined entertainment.  The poetic

            preference  for interweaving  the strongly imagistic

            Taoist terminology into one's work gradually evolved

            toward Buddhist doctrine.(25)

     

            T'ao Ch'ien

     

                The poet T'ao Ch'ien  (365-427;  also known  as

            T'ao Yuan-ming) represents a transitional  figure in

            the  increasing   rapport  of  Taoist  and  Buddhist

            currents.  He was on intimate terms with individuals

            from  both  groups.  Especially  noteworthy  is  his

            connection  with monks from the White  Lotus Society

            that eventually developed into Ch'an Buddhism.

                T'ao  Ch'ien has been hailed for both his poetic

            prowess and his spiritual re-

            ────────────

            (23) For  a detailed  discussion of this climate see

                 Kenneth  Ch'en, "Neo-Taoism  and  the  Praj~naa

                 School  during  the  Wei and  Chin  Dynasties,"

                 included  in  Chinese  Philosophy,  Volume  II:

                 Buddhism (Taipei, Taiwan: China Academy, 1974),

                 pp.129-42.

            (24) Liu I-ch'ing,  A  New Account of Tales  of  the

                 World, Chapter 7, section 25, p.105.

            (25) See Liu Chun's comments to chapter IV,  section

                 85, p.137.

     

     

                                    P.357

     

            finement: "the extreme beauty of T'ao Ch'ien's poems

            cannot be equaled by any other works because no poet

            had ever given  so much of his inner  experience  in

            his works." (26) His path of progress  may be traced

            in a poem simply entitled "Going Back to the Farm":

     

                When young, ill at ease with the common world,

                Naturally (hsing pen) loving hills and mountains.

                Mistakingly  [I]  fell into  the  midst  of  the

                worldly web,

                Onec gone [into the web] thirty years [went by].

                The caged bird pines for the forest of old,

                The ponded fish mourns for past depths.

                Clearing wilderness on the borders of the south-

                ern wasteland,

                Guard the stupid self back down on the farm;

                The place is more than a mu,

                [With] a grass shelter of eight or nine units

                Elms and willows shelter the eaves behind,

                Peach and plum trees overarch the building in front.

                Dimly seen, the far off village,

                Hovering [above], the village smoke;

                A dog barks deep within the lane,

                A rooster crows from the topmost branch of the mulberry tree.

                Door [shelter] and yard devoid of worldly confusion,

                Empty rooms overflowing with ease/tranquility.

                So long caged/confused within,

                [Now] returned, back to tzu-jan.(27)

     

            The  poem  begins  with  a depiction  of  his  early

            preference  for Nature (" naturally loving hills and

            mountains") and corresponding  uneasiness  with  the

            mundane world.  This is followed by an interlude  of

            alienation  from  Nature  and self.  This  stage  is

            vividly  depicted  in terms  of a bird or fish  torn

            from its natural habitat and

            ────────────

            (26) Chang Chung-yuan, Creativity and Taoism, p.191

            (27) My translation.

     

     

                                    P.358

     

            forced into the artificial restrictions of a cage or

            pond.  In each case longing remains for what was-the

            bird "pines"  while  the fish "mourns."  We then see

            the poet  liberated  from  the "worldly  web" in his

            third and final stage, having gone back to Nature in

            his rural seclusion.  Here "worldly  confusion"  has

            been dispelled, supplanted  by the tranquility  that

            overflows    in    emptiness    (paralleling     the

            "No-thingness" of wu yu).  T'ao Ch'ien has seen both

            the way of the worldings  and  the way of the  Sage.

            The way  of the world  left  him discontented, so he

            returned  to his  true  roots.  He did not  need  to

            acquire   tzu-jan,  only  to  remove  his  temporary

            alienation  from it, just as Ch'an awakening  is not

            an attainment, but a realization.

                Consistent  with  Taoist  thought,  T'ao  Ch'ien

            emphasizes  the  "returning"  (fu)  action  involved

            here, the return to the root that is Tao itself.  He

            also makes several allusions  to passages in the Tao

            Te  Ching,  most  specifically  the  utopian  vision

            described in chapter 80:

     

                Although  the  neighboring   country  is  within

                sight,

                And the  crowing  of cocks  and barking  of dogs

                there can be heard,

                The two peoples never are in touch with one another,

                Throughout their lives.(28)

     

            References  to tzu-jan and tranquility  point to the

            same inspirational source, while T'ao Ch'ien himself

            became a model emulated by later poets.

     

            III THE CH'AN SYNTHESIS

     

            The Threefold Process of Enlightenment (29)

     

                Building  upon both the indigenous  and imported

            traditions,  Chinese  Buddhists  gradually   adapted

            doctrines  to their own cultural  context, in accord

            with Buddhism's long-standing  emphasis on upaaya or

            pragmatic   adaptability.   The  Ch'an   school   is

            particularly   noteworthy   for  its  expansion   of

            traditions,  as  well  as  its  infusion  of  Taoist

            elements.   The  result  was  a  creative  synthesis

            representing

            ────────────

            (28) Translated  by  Charles  Wei-hsun Fu and Sandra

                 A.Wawrytko.

     

     

                                    P.359

     

            the ultimate sinification of Buddhist philosophy and

            practice.

                The same synthesizing  current  is evidenced  in

            the evolution of poetic forms within Ch'an practice.

            Shin'ichi Hisamatsu has stated that verse (ge or ju)

            was the primal  form of Ch'an  literature:

     

                Sometimes   this   verse   was   metrical,  with

                conventional  rhymes and tones, and sometimes it

                was completely  free of formality.  Zen Activity

                manifest  in words  favored  the use of concrete

                and  straightforward  images  in  a literary  or

                poetic  manner, rather  than the use of analytic

                or theoretical  prose.  Zen dialogues  in verse,

                for  example,  resulted  in  a  unique  literary

                style,  which   was  appropriate   to  the  full

                expression of Zen Activity. Poetry also has been

                used since  the early  days  of Zen as a vehicle

                for  transmitting  the  dharma  from  master  to

                disciple..in  Zen  lieterary  expression, poetry

                ranks first.(30)

     

                In addition  to the more orthodox  uses of poems

            to summarize  essential  points in sermons and serve

            as manifestos of enlightenment, poems now functioned

            as responses to the characteristically Ch'an kung-an

            (koan)   technique.    Poems    were    particularly

            appropriate   retorts  to  the  kung-an  since  both

            expressions  shared a translogical  core of meaning.

            When the kung-an had achieved its end of driving the

            stu-

            ────────────

            (29) Tung-shan   Liang-chich's    Five   Levels   of

                 Achievement  (wu wei kung hsun) bears a certain

                 resemblance  to the three-fold  model  proposed

                 here:

                 1. hsiang, or subjectivity

                 2. feng, or objectivity

                 3. kung,  or  non-action   (from  which  action

                    emerges)

                 4. kong kung, or the interfusion between action

                    and non-action

                 5. kung kung, or the absolute freedom from both

                    action and non-action

                 See  Chang  Chung-yuan, Original  Teachings  of

                 Ch'an Buddhism, Selected  from The Transmission

                 of the Lamp (New  York: Pantheon  Books, 1969),

                 pp.51-53. It should be emphasized that my model

                 is purely heuristic, and has no pretensions  of

                 being exhaustive or comprehensive.

            (30) Shin'ichi  Hisamatsu, Zen  and  the Fine  Arts,

                 Gishin  Tokiwa trans.( Tokyo : Kodansha Inter-

                 national Ltd., 1971), pp.13-14.

     

     

                                    P.360

     

            dent beyond  the limits  of rational  discourse  and

            mundane  consciousness, poetry was apt spontaneously

            to spew forth.  Thus the Ch'an Master  would be able

            to  evaluate  the  student's  comprehension  of  the

            incomprehensible  by decoding images that might seem

            bizarre,  if  not  nonsensical, to  the  unawakened.

            Enlightenment  poems  themselves  also  came  to  be

            utilized  as kung-an, as were  the  death  poems  of

            great masters.

                Different  students  might  legitimately   offer

            quite  different   poetic  responses   to  the  same

            kung-an, while  simultaneously  revealing  the  same

            insight.  For example, the following poems were both

            equally  acceptable  replies to the kung-an known as

            Joshu's  'Oak in the courtyard':

     

                Joshu's 'Oak in the courtyard'

                Nobody's grasped its roots.

                Turned from sweet plum trees,

                They pick sour pears on the hill.

                                                -Eian

                Joshu's 'Oak in the courtyard'

                Handed down, yet lost in leafy branch

                They miss the root. Disciple Kaku shouts

                'Joshu never said a thing!'

     

                                              -Monju-shindo(31)

     

            Despite   their   differing   contents,  both  poems

            demonstrate  that their respective authors have seen

            beyond the upaayic nature of the kung-an exercise to

            glimpse  the transcendental  truth  that  makes  the

            kung-an  itself  superfluous-like  the ladder pushed

            aside once the height  has been reached  or the raft

            left on the shore once the river has been crossed.

                For purposes of discussion, a three-fold process

            can be mapped within the Ch'an poetics:

            ────────────

            (31) Quoted by Lucien Stryk, The Penguin Book of Zen

                 Poetry, p.14.

     

     

                                    P.361

     

                Great   Faith   (ta-hsin) ,  adherence   to  the

                doctrines of Buddhism;  "Our supreme faith..  is

                in the  Buddha's  enlightenment  experience, the

                substance  of  which  he  proclaimed  to be that

                human  nature, all  existence, is  intrinsically

                whole, flawless, omnipotent-in  a word, perfect.

                Without  unwavering  faith  in this the heart of

                the  Buddha's  teaching,  it  is  impossible  to

                progress far in one's practice."

                Great  Doubt(ta-yi-t'uan), a turning  away  from

                vicarious knowledge and toward self-reliance  by

                the  introduction   of  a  salutary  skepticism;

                "mass-doubt".. as to why the world should appear

                so  imperfect, so full  of  anxiety, strife, and

                sufering, when in fact our deep faith  tells  us

                exactly  the  opposite  is  true.  It is a doubt

                which  leaves  us no rest."  (32) As one  master

                observed: "The  heart  is  Buddha'-this  is  the

                medicine   for  sichk  people.   'No  Heart,  no

                Buddha'-this  is to cure  people  who  are  sick

                because of the medicine." (33)

                Great Death (ta-shi), the point of break-through

                with the "death" or eradication  of the illusory

                ego-self;  both faith and doubt  are transcended

                in that there  is no one in whom  that faith  or

                doubt can be anchored.

     

                Ch'an practice is designed to guide the student

            successively   through   these  three  levels,  each

            building  on  its  predecessor.  By  virtue  of this

            strategy, practitioners  viewed themselves as having

            gone beyond other Buddhists in terms of the depth of

            their  penetration  into  "original  nature"  or the

            present    state    of   Buddhahood.    Thus,   they

            distinguished three levels of broadening awareness:

     

                1. the  Way  of the  Ancient  Masters, based  on

                   reading   Buddhist   Scripture   (and   hence

                   restricted  to the limitations  of linguistic

                   expression);

                2. Tathaagata  Ch'an, Ch'an of the Perfected One

                   (ju-lai  ch'an), or the  Ch'an  of Emptiness,

                   resulting from a non-reliance on language and

                   Scriptures, inclu-

            ────────────

            (32) Cf.  Zen Master Hakuun Yasutani's  Lectures  on

                 Zen, "10 The Three Essentials  of Zen Practice"

                 in Philip Kapleau's  the Three Pillars  of Zen:

                 Practice,  and  Enlightenment  (Boston:  Beacon

                 Press, 1965), pp.58-60

            (33) Master  Nanyo,  Irmgard  Schloegl  trans.,  The

                 Wisdom  of  the  Zen  Masters  (New  York:  New

                 Directions, 1975), as quoted by p.55.

     

     

                                    P.362

     

                   sive of Bodhidharma;

                3. the Ch'an of the Patriarchs (tsu shih ch'an),

                   or  the  direct  experience  of enlightenment

                   through mind to mind transmission, expressed

                   not through conventional language, but rather

                   through  either  action  (body  language)  or

                   silence. (34)

            Only the thired level of awareness could claim to be

            complete and perfect, the other two being mere means

            to this ultimate end.

                A certain similarity  may be discerned here with

            the three  phases  of the teaching/learning  process

            recognized by the T'ien-t'ai sect:

     

                1. to sow  the seed  of Buddha's  wisdom  in the

                   heart

                2. ripening of the seed

                3. harvesting of the seed, abandonment of

                   all.(35)

     

            What distinguishes  the Ch'an  approach, however, is

            the crucial transitional  second stage that directly

            contradicts  the  initial  stage.  In  contrast, the

            T'ien-t'ai methodology nurtures the seed sown in the

            level  to  its  second  stage  ripening.  Congruence

            returns  in  the  final  stage, where  the  seed  is

            harvested, that is, removed  and revealed  as a mere

            means  to the end  of enlightenment. The abandonment

            noted here this extends even to doctrine itself, the

            previously  sown seed. The common core would seem to

            be  upaaya   ,  the  orthodos   doctrine   expounded

            innumerable  times  by the  Buddha  that  emphasizes

            efficacy  an flexibility.  Both  the T'ien-t'ai  and

            Ch'an  schools  thus  may  be  seen  as  appropriate

            responses  to the cultural  imperatives  under which

            Buddhist   doctrine   had   to  accomplish-and-hence

            adapt-its message to the needs and sensitivities  of

            Chinese audiences.(36)

            ────────────

            (34) this threefold  divison  represents  a movement

                 initiated by the Sixth Patriarch, Hui-neng, and

                 his "sudden enlightenment" school. See Heinrich

                 Dumoulin, Zen Buddhist; A History: Vol, I India

                 and China, James  W.Heising  and Paul  Knitter,

                 trans.  (New York Macmillan publishing company,

                 1988)pp.155-56.

            (35) Soothill, p.55a.

     

     

                                    p.363

     

                The Ch'an  of the Ancient  Masters, reliance  on

            the  scriptures, entails  cognitive  literalism, the

            use  of abstract  language.  Given  its intellectual

            content and concepts, hsin or consciousness comes to

            the  fore.  While  it  is  the  beginning  point  of

            awakening, it is by no means a complete answer, only

            a partial  answer.  In seeking to cognitively  solve

            the  existential  quandary  of  life  and  death, it

            remains  ever  incapable  of  dis-solving   Samsaara

            within Nirvaana.

                When Buddhism  arrived  in China, it brought  in

            its wake a rich intellectual tradition. Many suutras

            and  volumes  of  philosophical   commentaries  were

            available    from original   Indian   sources    and

            increasingly  in Chinese  translation.  This immense

            foundation  also proved to be a source  of problems,

            by mistaking  the words written about awakening  for

            the experience itself.  The temptation  was to limit

            oneself   to   the   intellect,   to   assume   that

            intellectual  comprehension  was both  the beginning

            and the end o f Buddhist Dharma. However Buddhism is

            not merely  an intellectual  experience, it is first

            and  foremost  an existential  experience.  To limit

            oneself to intellectual understanding  is premature;

            it is imperative  to transcend the boundaries of the

            intellect, inclusive of language and logic.

                Seeing  the need to be rid of the intellect, the

            next level of Ch'an Buddhism  focussed  on the Ch'an

            of Voidness.  Emphasis is now placed on negation, as

            a reaction against an addiction to the intellectual,

            over-involvement    in    the    cognitive    level.

            Accordingly, people  burned  images  of the  Buddha,

            used the suutras  for toilet  paper, and engaged  in

            myriad forms of bizarre behavior to demonstrate that

            they   were   far  removed   from   the  stultifying

            influences  of  intellect.  In  this  sense, Chinese

            practitioners were  able  to  delve  their  own rich

            heritage of poetic expression, with its compellingly

            concrere images.

                Finally,   as   the   process   continues,   the

            realization   is  made  that  one  also  must  avoid

            fixation at the second, nay-saying level.  Only then

            is  the  final  level   realized,  seen  either   as

            transcendence  or the revelation  of the foundation.

            This Ch'an of the Patriarchs refers to the flesh and

            blood practitioners of the time, who best revered

            ────────────

            (36) An interesting  resource  for analysis  of this

                 culturally-induced   transformation   are   the

                 sermons  attributed  to  Bodhidharma  (Ta-mo) .

                 "Outline  of Practice, " "Bloodstream  Sermon,"

                 "Wake-up  Sermon, " and "Breakthrough  Sermon."

                 The  adaptation   of  Chinese  terminology   to

                 express the technical  terminology  of Buddhist

                 doctrine is of particular note.

     

     

                                    P.364

     

            the Buddha not by slavish  discipleship, but by bold

            re-enactment of his existential awakening.

     

            The Place of Poetry in Hui-Neng's Platform Suutra

     

                The  thought  of Hui-neng  (638-713), the  Sixth

            Patriarch, represents  an important turning point in

            the evloution of Ch'an.  A southerner by background,

            he  incorporates   Taoist  elements   into  Buddhism

            doctrine  as a means  of expressing  his  unique-and

            culturally influenced-interpretations of Dharma.  He

            even  is credited  with  attracting  Taoists  to his

            sermons.  Although tradition holds that Hui-neng was

            illiterate, this obviously posed no obstacle for him

            in  the  composition  of  classical  five  character

            verse.  In the  Platform  Suutra  he used  the stock

            Buddhist technique of intergrating poetic exposition

            into  his  lectures  to  summarize   and  underscore

            important  points.  (37)

                Poetry had a particularly  seminal  role to play

            in the progress  of Hui-neng's  career  in the Ch'an

            school. His case reveals a dimension of dynamism and

            poetic interplay  in terms of what might be termed a

            duel  played  out with  gaathaas  as "weapons."  His

            poetic  opponent, Shen-hsiu, thus takes  on the role

            of presenting  the first level of awareness  against

            which  Hui-neng   reacts,  then  building  upon  the

            insight evoked to realize the final stage. The stage

            is  set  by the  Fifth  Patriarch, Hung-jen, in  the

            context  of a poetry  contest, with transmission  of

            the  Ch'an  leadership  as the  prize.  Although  he

            cautions his disciples  that "deliberation  is quite

            unnecessary  and  will  be of  no use."  Shen-hsiu's

            entry betrays the hyperreflection of its author:

     

                Our body may be compared to the Bodhi-tree;

                While our heart (hsin) is a mirror bright;

                Carefully  we cleanse  and watch  them  hour  by

                hour,

                And let no dust collect upon them.

            ────────────

            (37) Passages  quoted here are from Suutra Spoken by

                 the Sixth patriarch, Wong Mou-lan  trans., rev.

                 Dwight  goddard, included  in Vol.I  of Suutras

                 and Scriptures, pp.337-446.

     

     

                                    P.365

     

            Certainly these lines demonstrate that Shen-hsiu has

            learned  his  lessons  well.  Shen-hsiu  was in fact

            Hung-jen's  star  pupil  and assumed  heir apparent.

            Unfortunately,  as  Hui-neng  recognized,  there  is

            nothing more than intellectual  awareness  reflected

            here, as if he merely enjoyed a dream of awakening.

                Hui-neng, by contrast, was already  half-aroused

            from his slumbers and asked someone to write out the

            following retort:

     

                By no means is Bodhi a kind  of tree,

                Nor  is the  bright  reflecting  mind  (hsin), a

                case  of mirrors.

                Since  mind is emptiness,

                Where can dust collect?

     

            Typical  of the second  stage, these lines  focus on

            negation, pointing  out  the error  of the  previous

            poem.  While the Fifth Patriarch immediately  sensed

            the  potential  they  revealed, there  was one  more

            stage to be realized.

                Following  transmission  of the Dharma  from the

            Fifth  patriarch, Hui-neng  was fully  awakened.(38)

            Although  we have no gaathaa as documentation, we do

            have  his  poetically-phrased  reponse  to the Fifth

            Patriarch's  offer to ferry him across a river as he

            left the monastery:

     

                (So  long  as  I  was)  under  illusion,  I  was

                dependent on you to get me across, but now it is

                different--since  I am  now  enlightened, it  is

                only right for me to cross  the sea of birth and

                death  by  my  own  effort  to  realize  my  own

                self-nature (tse-hsing).

     

            Later, after  hearing  the gaathaa  of Ch'an  Master

            Wo-lun vaunting  his self-proclaimed  enlightenment,

            Hui-neng composed these lines:

     

                Hui-neng has no special aptitude;

                He does not cut off any thoughts.

     

            ────────────

            (38) The  text  reads: "Hui-neng  yen  hsia  ta wu."

                 Previously  Hui-neng had described his response

                 to hearing the Diamond Suutra as "hsin chi k'ai

                 wu."

     

     

                                    P.366

     

                His mind responds to all situatins.

                In what way can the Bodhi tree grow? (39)

           

                Hui-neng  went on to develop the concept  of the

            original   nature  with  greater  clarity  than  had

            hitherto been applied.  His reference to wu-hsin (no

            mind) displays on obvious similarity to the concepts

            of  Taoism.  The  use  of  the  qualifying  term  wu

            fulfills  the same  function  for hsin  that Lao Tzu

            accomplishes  for wei.  That is, rather than being a

            denial  or negation, it represents  a more  profound

            transcendence.   Your  original   nature  is  always

            present, like enlightenment;  it is tzu-jan, natural

            spontaneity.  The subtle change of focus wrought  by

            Hui-neng  moves  us  from  the  Taoist  emphasis  on

            methodology  (wu-wei  as non-interference  with  the

            working  of Tao) to existential  awareness, which is

            more appropriate  to Buddhism.

                Hsin represents  not simply  one's  intellectual

            center, but the way of dealing  with the world  that

            relies on consciousness  and the comparatively  weak

            tools  of  language   and  logic.   When  these  are

            recognized  as a potential  trap, one  is led to the

            second  stage of denial, pu-hsin, really a denial of

            our self-restriction  to consciousness.  However, it

            is impossible do this literally. Instead, we need to

            cultivate  the mind of no-mind  at the third  level,

            which is the Buddha mind. What we must rid ourselves

            of  is  not  sin,  but   attachment   to  artificial

            limitations. In a sense, then, we are excavating the

            underlying foundation. It is a kind of homecoming, a

            return to Tao, a return to one's original mind. This

            also grows out of the transmission Hui-neng received

            from the Fifth Patriarch  to avoid attachment, which

            Hui-neng further developed as non-abiding  (wu-chu).

            This  translates  into an avoidance  of fixation  on

            concepts, words, or doctrines, whether positively or

            negatively propounded.  It constitutes teaching  by

            non-teaching, which thus avoids  both the dependency

            of the first level (Great Faith) and the more subtle

            dependency on independence (Great Doubt).  So it has

            been said, "the Buddha taught for forty-nine  years,

            but no word was spoken."

            ────────────

            (39) As  quoted  by  Wu, p.81.  wo-lun's  poem, also

                 cited  by Wu, was:

                 Wo-lun  possesses  a special aptitude:

                 He can cut off all thoughts.

                 No situation can stir his mind.

                 The Bodhi tree grows daily in him.

     

     

                                    P.367

     

            Ch'an Master Pai-chang Huai-hai

           

                Pai-chang's ( 749-814 ) three level continuum of

            "the incomplete  and the complete teaching" seems to

            reflect the same experiential  process of awakening.

            Although  Pai-chang  does not use poetry per se, his

            prose is permeated  with poetic  images  that engage

            the   reader   in  a  trans-intellectual   mode   of

            comprehension:

     

                1."The way of two vehicles" (Theravaada Buddhism)

                  concerns  the  monks  who diligently  practice

                  Buddhist   discipline    in   a   meditational

                  lifestyle.  While  this is recognized  as "the

                  elementary  good," it is also  criticized  for

                  "obstructing  Buddha's  light"  and  "shedding

                  Buddha's  blood," The problem here is that the

                  practitioner  has taken  it all too seriously,

                  and  views   Buddhism   from   too  narrow   a

                  perspective. It is the way of "one who is fond

                  of the raft [that  is, the doctrine]  and will

                  not give it up," which constitutes  a  kind of

                  grasping  when in fact  all forms  of grasping

                  are  to be exorcised.  It  is, in  effect, and

                  attachment to non-attachment.

                2." The half-word teaching " is  an  improvement

                  over these well-motivated errors, for there is

                  neither   grasping  nor   dwelling   in   non-

                  attachment.  Yet even here  we have only  "the

                  intermediate  good." The fatal flaw resides in

                  "meditation   sickness..the   bondage  of  the

                  bodhisattvas."    By   this   is   meant    an

                  isolationism  in which  one  is so  intent  on

                  /addicted  to meditational  practice  that the

                  rest of the world ceases to exist.  This is an

                  artificial, even escapist, approach  amounting

                  to wisdom  bereft  of  compassion.  Only  con-

                  summate  wisdom  allows  for   the  return  to

                  in-the-world  experience  without degeneration

                  to being of-the-world.

                3." The full-word teaching " alone avoids all of

                  the above  pitfalls.  Thus  it is deemed  "the

                  final good" in which  there  is no attempt  to

                  understand  or make sense  of not dwelling  in

                  non-attachment.  One is then able  to re-enter

                  the world  with  a combination  of wisdom  and

                  compassion.The extremes of over-intellectuali-

                  zing  and  anti-intellectualization  are  both

                  avoided.

                This same three-fold process is reflected in the

            poetic expressions  of Ch'an practitioners.  In each

            case  we can see a re-enactment  of " a deer leaping

            three

     

                                    P.368

     

            times  and  getting  out of the net"  to become  "an

            enlightened   one   beyond   confinement."(40)  Most

            especially, this signals an end to self-confinement:

     

                To say the present mirror awareness is one's own

                Buddha   is  words  of  measurement,  words   of

                calculation-it  is like the crying  of a jackal.

                This  is still  being  stuck  as in glue  at the

                gate, Originally  you  did not acknowledge  that

                innate  knowing  and  awareness   are  your  own

                Buddha,  and  went  running  elsewhere  to  seek

                Buddha.  So you  needed  a teacher  to tell  you

                about innate knowing and awareness as a medicine

                to cure this disease of hastily seeking outside.

                Once  you no longer  seek outwardly, the disease

                is  cured  and  it  is necessary  to remove  the

                medicine. If you cling fixedly to innate knowing

                awareness  [level two;  the Ch'an of Emptiness],

                this  is  a disease  of meditation.  Such  is  a

                thoroughgoing  disciple;  like water  turned  to

                ice, all the ice is water, but it can hardly  be

                expected to quench thirst.(41)

     

            The  reference   to  stagnation   at  the  gate   is

            interesting  by  way  of  comparison  to  Lao  Tzu's

            reference  to "The  gateway to infinite  wonders" in

            the  final  line  of  the  Tao  Te  Ching's  opening

            chapter.

           

            Hsiang-yen Chih-hsien

     

                In the  case  of  Hsiang-yen  (p.898), we see  a

            poetically documented progression  through the three

            stages  of enlightenment.  (42) What is particularly

            important  here  is the implication  that  his  main

            obstacle seems to be his own brilliant intellect and

            his impressive  scholarship.  Master  Tokusan  makes

            this  point  very clearly  in the Mumonkan: "However

            deep your knowledge of the scriptures, it is no more

            than  a strand  of hair  in the  vastness  of space;

            however  important  seeming your worldly experience,

            it is but a drop of water in a deep ravine." (43)

            ────────────

            (40) Pai-chang, p.31.

            (41) Pai-chang, p.34.

            (42) The  subsequent  discussion  of  Hsiang-yen  is

                 derived  from Chang  Chung-yuan's  translation,

                 Original  Teachings   of  Ch'an  Buddhism,  pp.

                 189-91, 219-20.

     

     

                                    P.369

     

                The original catalyst for Hsiang-yen's  extended

            enlightenment  experience  came  in  form  of a very

            popular  kung-an  with  which  he was confronted  by

            Ch'an  master  Kuei-shan  Ling-yu:  "what  was  your

            original  face before your parents  gave you birth?"

            At a loss  as to how  to reply, Hsiang-yen  suddenly

            realized  the futility of his abstract  learning and

            exclaimed "There is no hunger which can be satisfied

            by pictures  of  food  painted  on paper!" Thus, his

            "hunger"   for  enlightenment   remained  unsatiated

            despite  his having  read numerous  texts describing

            it.  Vowing to abandon  his studies  of Buddhism, he

            burned his notes and left the monastery.

                Much later,  while  living   a  quiet   life  of

            seclusion, the  seed  planted  by  Master  Kuei-shan

            began  to  sprout.  As he was  weeding  his  garden,

            spontaneously  Hsiang-yen  burst into laughter  upon

            hearing  the sound  of a dislodged  rock  hitting  a

            piece   if  bamboo.   He  composed   a  gaathaa   to

            commemorate his break-through:

     

                With one  stroke,  all  previous  knowledge   is

                forgotten.

                No  cultivation  is  needed  for this.

                This occurrence reveals the ancient way.

                And is free from the track of quiescence.

                No trace is left anywhere.

                Whatever  I hear  and  see does  not conform  to

                rules.

                All those who are enlightened.

                Proclaim this to be the greatest action.

     

            These  lines  indicate  that Hsiang-yen  indeed  has

            completely  let go of his misguided fixation on mere

            scholarship, something  he was unable  to accomplish

            by simply  burning  his notes.  Being instantaneous,

            his    break-through    required    no   (conscious)

            cultivation. On the contrary, it involved what Chang

            Chung-Yuan   refers   to  as  "the  cultivation   of

            non-cultivation."  Nonetheless, there  is an air  of

            verbal pretentiousness  about these lines, betraying

            a dissonance  with consummate  Ch'an.  The poet  is,

            perhaps, too eloquen t and still too attached to his

            intellectual acumen. Hence, he boldly claims to have

            revealed the "ancient way" and to have freed himself

            from "the track of quiescence."  Conformity  to mere

            rules is disavowed, and he

            ────────────

            (43) Tokusan  as  quoted  by  Lucien  Stryk  in  his

                 preface  to  Zen  Poems  of  China  and  Japan,

                 p.vlviii.

     

     

                                    P.370

     

            ranks himself  among the enokghtened  in his closing

            proclamation.

                Learning  of  Hsiang-yen's  experience, a fellow

            monk.  Yang-shan  Hui-chi  (807-883), went to him to

            verify Hsiang-yen's enlightemnent. After hearing the

            above gaathaa  he relegated  it to the lowest level,

            and raised a challenge  to Hsiang-yen: "Hereing  you

            followed the sayings of the ancient masters.  If you

            have  really  been  awakened, speak  from  your  own

            experience."   In  response  Hsiang-yen  composed  a

            second gaathaa:

     

                My poverty  of last  year was not real  poverty.

                This year it is want indeed.

                In last  year's  poverty  there  was room, for a

                piercing gimlet.

                In this  year's  poverty  even the gimlet  is no

                more.

     

            These lines include  a recognition  of past error on

            Hsiang-yen's   part,  an  admission   that   he  had

            misjudged  his  situation.  The previous  sprout  of

            wisdom  now  displays  a  bud.   The  reference   to

            "poverty" connotes detachment from artificiality and

            superficiality, and is consistent  with the negative

            formulation  of the second level reflected  in Great

            Doubt.  The  "piercing  gimlet"symbolizes  lingering

            attachment, which  he now believes  he has  removed.

            Note that this poem is both shorter  than  the first

            and more simply stated.

                Yang-shan acknowledged this to be an improvement

             over the first effort, yet still found  it somewhat

             lacking.  He dismissed it with the remark. "You may

             have the Ch'an  of Tathaagata, but as for the Ch'an

             of the Patriarchs, you have not even dreamed of

             it." In other  words, Hsiang-yen  is adrift  on the

             sea  of  voidness, and  has  yet  to  land  on  the

             opposite   shore.   Inspired   by  this   critique,

             Hsiang-yen immediately retorted:

     

                I have my secret.

                I look at you with twinkling eye.

                If you do not understand this.

                Do not call yourself a monk.

            In  this  briefest  and  most  vague  of  the  three

            gaathaas Hsiang-yen has finally demon-

     

     

                                    P.371

     

            strated that he has arrived  at the deepest level of

            awareness.  The bud has burst into full bloom Unlike

            the others, it asserts  no claims  of awakening.  It

            makes   no   attempt   at  either   description   or

            symbolization,but simply presents a phenomenological

            exposition  of the present  moment (being-here-now).

            The sentiment it contains runs parallel to Lao Tzu's

            lines "Whoever knows does not speak;/Whoever  speaks

            does not know" (Tao Te Ching, chapter 56). Yang-shan

            responded  approvingly, " I  rejoice   that  brother

            Hsiang-yen has grasped the Ch'an of the Patriarchs."

                The poetic expressions, then, become a series of

            vehicles for enriching  and ultimately  consummating

            the original glimmering  of enlightenment.  At first

            Hsiang-yen  cannot resist the temptation  to expound

            on his experience  in stereotypically  Ch'an jargon,

            displaying  a misguided conformity to non-conformist

            expressions.  The  remonstrance  of his fellow  monk

            forces  him  to  reconsider,  and  his  response  is

            accordingly less flamboyant. However, only the final

            poem shows that he has exorcised  the demons  of lan

            guage  and conceptualization, as he fully recognizes

            the   futility    of   verbalizing    enlightenment.

            Enlightenment  is for  him  no longer  an object  of

            intellect  but  rather  a fact  of being.  The Ch'an

            strategy  behind this process has been described  as

            follows:

     

                The Zen experience  is centripetal, the artist's

                contemplation  of subject sometimes  referred to

                as  'mind-pointing'.  The  disciple  in an early

                stage  of discipline  is asked to point the mind

                at  (meditate  upon) an  object, say  a bowl  of

                water.  At first, he is quite naturally inclined

                to metaphorize, expand, rise imaginatively  from

                water  to  lake,  sea,  clouds,  rain.   Natural

                perhaps, but  just  the kind  of 'mentalization'

                Zen masters  caution  against.  The disciple  is

                instructed  to continue until it is possible  to

                remain  strictly  with  the  object, penetrating

                more deeply, no longer looking  bold it but, the

                Sixth Patriarch  Hui-neng maintained  essential,

                bold  it..so  close  an identification  with the

                object  that  the  unstable   mentalizing   self

                disappears.(44)

            ────────────

            (44) Lucien Stryk, The penguin Book of Zen Poetry,

              p.23.

     

     

                                    P.372

     

            IV.  AN EPISTEMOLOGICAL  ANALYSIS  OF THE  THREEFOLD

                 EXPERIENCE OF AWAKENING:THE CASE OF CH'ING-YUAN

                 WEI-HSIN

     

            To  explore  this  process   more  closely,  let  us

            consider antoher set of enlightenment poems, perhaps

            the most famous of all, illustrating  the dawning of

            Ch'an awareness for Ch'ing-yuan Wei-hsin.  His three

            stage process of understanding has often been quoted

            in explications of Ch'an practice:

     

                Thirty  years  ago, before  I began the study of

                Zen, I  said, 'Mountains  are  mountains, waters

                are waters.'

                After  I got an insight  into  the truth  of Zen

                through  the  instruction  of  a good  master, I

                said, "mountains  are not  mountains, water  are

                not water.'

                But now, having attained the abode of final rest

                [that  is,  Awakening],  I  say, 'Mountains  are

                really mountains, water are really waters'(45)

     

            There is much of philosophical  significance  within

            these unpretentious lines and their mundane images.

     

            I. 'Mountains are mountains, waters are waters.'

     

                This  is the  way  things  are in the  world, in

            terms  of our mundane  perception, the  keynotes  of

            which    are   differentiation,   affirmation,   and

            objectification.  This  level  of  consciousness  is

            associated  with the "deaf worldling"  by Pai Chang.

            (46) In  terms  of Nietzsche's  Three  Metamorphoses

            (Thus  Spoke  Zarathustra), the image is that of the

            camel, bearing the burden of social conditioning, as

            characterized by Great Faith.

                These simple-and  simplistic-declarative  state-

                ments of is-ness issue from the

            ────────────

            (45) Quoted  by Abe  Masao  in his Zen  and  Western

                 Thought,   edited    by   William    R.La-Fleur

                 (University of Hawaii Press, 1989), p.4.  Masao

                 goes   on  to  elucidate   the  epistemological

                 significance, of these  lines  in the remainder

                 of  that  chapter   entitled   "Zen  Is  Not  a

                 Philosophy, but.." (pp.5-18).  My own discussin

                 here  is both a restatement  and an elaboration

                 of his analysis.

            (46) Pai-Chang, p.29.

     

     

                                    P.373

     

            viewpoint  of a subject  (1) encountering  an object

            (the other). It thereby presupposes a duality, along

            with  its attendant  categories  of objectivity  and

            subjectivity.  Most importantly, these  distinctions

            posit  the ego-self  as center  and focal point.  At

            this   rudimentary   level,  hsin  or  consciousness

            engages in (ultimately futile) wei activity, seeking

            to control and manipulate  what is perceived  as the

            other.

                In  turn, the  I  or  ego-self  perpetrates  the

            subject/object   duality   of   questioner   (1)  as

            distinguished   from   that   which   is  questioned

            (myself). Hence arises the eternal and central query

            of  western  philosophy  concerning   self-identity,

            epitomized   by  the  Cartesian   meditations.   The

            subjective  (inquiring) Self may be identified  with

            the  Tree  Self  discussed  in the Upanisads  as the

            aatman. Since it is impossible to grasp this aatman,

            the  ultimate  result  of  the  attempt  to do so is

            self-estrangement  and  anxiety.  In  a  generalized

            sense, the Buddha  termed  this dukkha, while modern

            psychotherapy  has referred to it as the Existential

            Vacuum (k'ung k'ung tung tung). As Abe observes:"The

            ego-self, split at the root into subject and object,

            is forever dangling over a bottomless  abyss, unable

            to gain any footing." (47)

                The existential realization of the  unattainabi-

            lity  of the True  Self constitutes  an opaque  wall

            blocking   the  path   of  enlightenment.   Only  by

            destroying   the  ego-self   can  no-self  or,  more

            precisely, no-ego-self, emerge, thereby  putting  an

            end  to  the  false  subject/object   duality.   The

            possibility of realization, and the impossibility of

            attainment, also  underscores  the present  fact  of

            enlightenment  as  an  awakening  to  a pre-existing

            reality   rather   than  an  accomplishment   to  be

            achieved.

     

            II 'Mountains  are  not  mountains, waters  are  not

            waters'

                The  keynote  at this  stage  is the  denial  of

            differentiation,  affirmation, and  objectification,

            that is a total contradiction of the preceding stage

            and   can   be  characterized   as  nihilistic.   It

            encompasses  the an-aatman  and pu-wei  of Taoism as

            well as Hui-neng's pu-hsin, in direct opposition  to

            the previous stage. For Nietzsche, it corresponds to

            the  nay-saying  rebellious  lion, representing  the

            common chord of destruction-Great Doubt.

                However, inherent  in  this  negation  is  a new

            differentiation,     an     ultimately     misguided

            polarization  between  differentiation  and lack  of

            differentiation. This is a

            ────────────

            (47) Abe, pp.6-7.

     

     

                                    P.374

     

            crucial  and  necessary   transitional   phase  that

            represents  a two-edged Zen sword that may both kill

            and save.  On the one hand, it represents a solution

            to the fundamental  problematic of stage one, rooted

            in existential awareness, by uprooting the ego-self.

            The result  of this  obliteration  is detachment, an

            ebbing  of anxiety, and  tranquility.  On the  other

            hand it contains an implicit  danger of fixation  on

            no-self.  Paralleling  Pai chang's  warning  against

            " meditation  sickness, " it   includes   the   risk

            factor of  wallowing  in  non-attachment, leading to

            indifference  and lack  of compassion  as negativity

            predominates.  Latent  within  it Abe  identifies  a

            "hidden form of anxiety".

                Thus, it  also  represents  an obstacle  on  the

            enlightenment path, but a much more subtle obstacle,

            hiding is liabilities  by its transparency.  That is

            to say, unlike  the  opaque  wall  presented  by the

            ego-self  that must be broken through  in going from

            the first to the second stage, this wall deludes  us

            into   thinking   we  already   have  achieved   our

            objective, for we are allowed  to glimpse  the goal.

            The  danger   is  that   we  will   mistake   seeing

            enlightenment   for  being   enlightened,  just   as

            Hsiang-yen  mistakingly   assumed  his  poverty  was

            "real"  poverty,  unlike  his  original  error.  The

            common flaw in both the first and second stages is a

            lingering  objectification-first   in  terms  of  an

            ego-self and then as its denial, a no-self. Even the

            no-self    is    ascribed    the    properties    of

            unattainability  or emptiness  that  perpetuate  the

            myth   of   thing-ness.   Furthermore,  this   thing

            continues  to  be  perceived  as needing  to acquire

            enlightenment, creating  a gulf between  that  which

            experiences  realization  and  that  which  is to be

            realized. At this point, as Abe puts it, Realization

            A has been  grasped: 'I, as the True Self, am empty,

            unattainable.'  What  remains, however, is  an  even

            more radical step: "Emptiness must empty itself."

     

            III  'Mountains  are  really  mountains, waters  are

            really waters.'

     

                Stage three brings  us full circle, in a kind of

             Taoist returning with a difference. Differentiation

             emerges at the negation of no differentiation  in a

             negation  of negation, or double  negative.  Mutual

             cancellation  brings  about  absolute  affirmation.

             This is the emptying  of emptiness  giving  rise to

             fullness;  an  overcoming  of the  very  overcoming

             process,   a   liberation   from   the   liberation

             imperative. All attachments,even to non-attachment,

             are now effectively removed, as are the last

     

     

                                    P.375

     

            shreds of dukkha.  Nietzsche identifies  this as the

            self-forgetting  innocence  of the  child, who  says

            'yes'  to  life.  Or, as stated  by Master  Lin-chi,

            "When  hungry, I eat;  when  tired, I  sleep.  Fools

            laugh at me.  The wise understand."  (48) It signals

            the  Great  Death  of  the  remaining   remnants  of

            ego-self/non-ego-self.

                In the  threefold  process  of the  negation  of

            ego-self  followed  by the negation  of no-self  the

            true and ever unattainable true self is at long last

            realized.  This is wu-hisn, no-mind, the Middle  Way

            between former polarities.  It is not a solution  or

            resolution  of the problem  of self, but rather  its

            dis-solution  and  dis-appearance.   The  walls-both

            opaque and transparent-have  now been dis-solved  as

            well.  Abe speaks here of Realization B: 'Emptiness,

            the   Unattainable,  itself   is  the  True   Self.'

            Objectification  is  at  an  end,  and   realization

            merges  with  the realizer.  In coming  home  to our

            original  nature  we also  realize  that  the  whole

            world, represented  by the mountains  and waters, is

            home.

                The above discussion  illustrates  the multitude

             of uses to which  poetry  was put as a means to the

             end of enlightenment.  Building  on Indian sources,

             and   enriched   by  Chinese   poetic   and  Taoist

             traditions, Ch'an poetics  evolved  into a powerful

             upaayic tool. Chang Chung-yuan's pronouncement that

             "pure   serenification..constitutes   the   highest

             achievement  of Chinese  poets, to whom ontological

             and poetic experience are one" is hereby abundantly

             vindicated.(49)

            ────────────

            (48) Lin-chi (Rinzai), as quoted by Schloegl, p.79.

            (49) Chang Chung-yuan, Creativity and Taoism, p.174

     

     

                                    p.376

     

          ┌─────────────────────────┐

          │CULTIVATION PROCESSES  │HUI-NENG                 │

          │UNDERLYING SUDDEN      │unclouding the mind-Fifth│

          │                       │Patriarch                │

          │ENLIGHTENMENT          │                         │

          │THROUGH THE STIMULUS   │                         │

          │OF THE KUNG-AN         │                         │

          │─────────────────────────┤

          │THE WAY OF THE ANCIENT │Our body may be compared │

          │─────────── │to the Bodhi-tree;       │

          │MASTER                 │                         │

          │───                 │                         │

          │reliance on the scrip- │While our hear(hsin) is a│

          │tures                  │mirror bright;           │

          │COGNITIVE LITERALISM:  │                         │

          │ABSTRACT LANGUAGE,     │Carefully we cleanse and │

          │INTELLECTUAL CONTENT   │watch them hour by hour, │

          │AND CONCEPTS           │And let no dust collect  │

          │                       │upon them.               │

          │GREAT FAITH:           │-Shen-hsiu               │

          │THE MIND IS THE BUDDHA │                         │

          │─────────────────────────┤

          │THE CH'AN OF           │By no means is Bodhi a   │

          │──────           │kind of tree,            │

          │TATHAGATA/VOIDNESS     │Nor is the bright        │

          │─────────     │reflecting mind(hsin),   │

          │burning the Scriptures │a case of mirrors.       │

          │DISTRUST OF LANGUAGE   │Since mind is emptiness, │

          │AS INADEQUATE TO CONVEY│Where can dust collect?  │

          │REALITY GREAT DOUBT:   │-Hui-neng                │

          │NON MIND, NO BUDDHA    │                         │

          │─────────────────────────┤

          │THE CH'AN OF THE       │(So long as I was) under │

          │────────       │illusion, I was dependent│

          │PATRIARCHS transcend-  │on you to get me across, │

          │─────             │but now it is different..│

          │ing the Scripture,     │since I am now enlighten │

          │individual spontaneity │-ed, it is only right for│

          │BEING-HERE-NOW:        │me to cross the sea of   │

          │ACTUAL EXPERIENCE      │birth and death by my own│

          │GREAT DEATH            │effort to realize my own │

          │silence (ta-chi,great  │self nature(tse-hsing).  │

          │potentiality) or       │-Hui-neng                │

          │action(ta-yung, great  │                         │

          │activity)              │                         │

          └─────────────────────────┘

     

     

            p.377

     

            ├──────────┬─────────────┐

            │HSIANG YEN          │CH'ING YUAN WEI-HSIN      │

            │What was your       │                          │

            │original face before│                          │

            │your parents gave   │                          │

            │you birth?          │                          │

            ├──────────┼─────────────┤

            │With one stroke,all │Thirty years ago, before I│

            │previous knownledge │began the study of Zen, I │

            │is forgotten.       │said, "Mountains are      │

            │No cultivation is   │mountains, waters are     │

            │needed for this.    │waters."                  │

            │This occurrence     │                          │

            │reveals the ancient │                          │

            │way.                │                          │

            │And is free from the│                          │

            │track of quiescence.│                          │

            │No trace is left    │                          │

            │anywhere.           │                          │

            │Whatever I hear and │                          │

            │see does not conform│                          │

            │to rules.           │                          │

            │All those who are   │                          │

            │enlightened         │                          │

            │Proclaim this to be │                          │

            │the greatest action.│                          │

            ├──────────┼─────────────┼

            │My poverty of last  │After I got an insight into

            │year was not real   │the truth of Zen through  │

            │poverty.            │the instruction of a good │

            │This year it is want│master, I said, "Mountains│

            │indeed.             │are not mountains, waters │

            │In last year's      │are not waters."          │

            │poverty there was   │                          │

            │rooms,for a piercing│                          │

            │gimlet.             │                          │

            │In this year's      │                          │

            │poverty even the    │                          │

            │gimlet is no more.  │                          │

            ├──────────┼─────────────┤

            │I have my secret.   │But now, having attained  │

            │I look at you with  │the abode of final rest   │

            │twinkling eye.If you│[that is,Awakening],I say,│

            │do not understand   │"Mountains are really     │

            │this, Do not call   │mountains, waters are     │

            │yourself a monk.    │really waters."           │

            │                    │                          │

            └──────────┴─────────────┘

     

     

                                    p.378

     

            提要

              所有神秘主义传统的诗人修道者早就知道,诗的形式适

            于传达不可言诠的终极真实或境界。诗所表现的意义微妙性

            与起兴性远较散文为高。诗的无止境开放性所发挥的作用就

            如同禅画一样,能让听众与原作者,尤其原艺术家,共享余

            韵。这样,艺术欣赏就转化成为默思瞑想了。

              本文专就禅宗诗偈所扮演的重要角色而予以讨论。简论

            早期佛教圣典的诗偈要素之后,我将探讨曾影响过中国佛教

            演进,而特以诗体表现哲学思想的中国本土传统。然后,我

            将借用禅悟三层历程所彰显的诗偈,方便善巧的应用实例,

            来讨论禅宗之中不同资源的创造性汇合。

                本文开头一段,描述了转迷开悟的诗作之道,专注于佛

            教圣典中的诗偈功能。这里首要的一点是,要了解佛教开创

            以来,诗偈在佛典之中,为何又如何能具有传达佛法的功能

            。

              本文续论道家传统的诗道先驱。一般认为中国诗歌传

            统有其两大本源 -- 即儒家所强调的诗经与楚辞及其道家哲

            学背景。后者又与佛教思想更接近,例如老子的道德经,刘

            义庆所著世说新语中的玄学思潮,以及潜具儒家韵味的陶潜

            诗等乃为明证。

              禅的悟道的三历程,或可分视之为上古佛教袓师之道,

            空性禅,与祖师禅。此一历程可在某些禅宗袓师的诗作之中

            看到痕迹,包括。包括慧能,百丈怀海,与香岩智闲。我将

            特就青原的著名悟道诗分析其三层的历程。经过拙文的探讨

            发现:禅的诗偈是源乎于印度佛教,经由中国古诗与道家传

            统的中介与丰富化,而终于演进成为一种强而有力的佛法方

            便善巧。

     


     

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  • 让禅回到生活,佛法不能脱离世间[752]

  • 禅就是保持当下这一念心[587]

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